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The nursing process and nursing models

Updated on December 16, 2009

Whilst the nursing process offers a systematic way of looking at care delivery, on its own it is not particularly useful as it does not give any indication as to what to assess. It indicates that care should be planned,implemented and evaluated but again offers little direction as to how to do this. Consequently a number of practitioners and nurse theorists have offered theoretical frameworks or models. One such model is the‘Activities of Living Model’, proposed by Nancy Roper, Winifred Logan and Alison Tierney (1996). Basing their ideas on previous work by Maslow (1958) and Virginia Henderson (1960), and Nancy Roper herself, Roper, Logan and Tierney set out to describe what they believed everyday living involves for individuals, and from this identify the necessary components of nursing. In very simple terms their model can be summarized as consisting of four components, which all contribute to individuality in living, namely (1) the lifespan continuum from conception to death; (2) 12 activities of living (listed below); (3) five factors that influence each of these activities,
that is physical, psychological, sociocultural, environmental and politi-
coeconomic; and (4) a dependence/independence continuum.
The 12 activities of living are:
1 breathing
2 mobilizing
3 personal cleansing and dressing
4 maintaining a safe environment
5 eating and drinking
6 communicating
7 dying
8 eliminating
9 maintaining body temperature
10 expressing sexuality
11 working and playing
12 sleeping.


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