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Various Radiographic (X-Ray) Representations Of Emphysematous Lungs In Respiratory Disorders

Updated on February 6, 2014

Understanding The X-rays

Source

Introduction

Emphysema together with Chronic Bronchitis form the ailment: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD and is related to the daily average of cigarettes smoked and years spent smoking. Most smokers will eventually develop abnormal lung function if they continue to smoke. This hub is aimed at showing graphical representations in form of x-rays to show the COPD manifestations, especially in Emphysema.

Emphysematous Lungs

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of lung diseases that block airflow and make breathing difficult.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of lung diseases that block airflow and make breathing difficult. | Source
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common conditions that make up COPD. Damage to your lungs from COPD can't be reversed, but treatment can help control symptoms and minimize further damage.
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common conditions that make up COPD. Damage to your lungs from COPD can't be reversed, but treatment can help control symptoms and minimize further damage. | Source
Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs. Emphysema occurs when the air sacs (alveoli) at the end of the smallest air passages (bronchioles) in the lungs are gradually destroy
Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs. Emphysema occurs when the air sacs (alveoli) at the end of the smallest air passages (bronchioles) in the lungs are gradually destroy | Source
Symptoms of COPD often don't appear until significant lung damage has occurred, and they usually worsen over time. For chronic bronchitis, the main symptom is a cough that you have at least three months a year for two consecutive years.
Symptoms of COPD often don't appear until significant lung damage has occurred, and they usually worsen over time. For chronic bronchitis, the main symptom is a cough that you have at least three months a year for two consecutive years. | Source
Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities, wheezing, chest tightness and Having to clear your throat first thing in the morning, due to excess mucus in your lungs
Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities, wheezing, chest tightness and Having to clear your throat first thing in the morning, due to excess mucus in your lungs | Source
A chronic cough that produces sputum that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish, Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis) and Frequent respiratory infections
A chronic cough that produces sputum that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish, Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis) and Frequent respiratory infections | Source
People with COPD are also likely to experience episodes called exacerbations, during which their symptoms become worse and persist for days or longer.
People with COPD are also likely to experience episodes called exacerbations, during which their symptoms become worse and persist for days or longer. | Source
The main cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. However, in the developing world, COPD often occurs in women exposed to fumes from burning fuel for cooking and heating in poorly ventilated homes.
The main cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. However, in the developing world, COPD often occurs in women exposed to fumes from burning fuel for cooking and heating in poorly ventilated homes. | Source
Only about 20 percent of chronic smokers develop COPD. Some smokers develop less common lung conditions. They may be misdiagnosed as having COPD until a more thorough evaluation is performed.
Only about 20 percent of chronic smokers develop COPD. Some smokers develop less common lung conditions. They may be misdiagnosed as having COPD until a more thorough evaluation is performed. | Source
Air travels down your windpipe (trachea) and into your lungs through two large tubes (bronchi). Inside your lungs, these tubes divide many times — like the branches of a tree — into many smaller tubes (bronchioles) that end in clusters of tiny air sa
Air travels down your windpipe (trachea) and into your lungs through two large tubes (bronchi). Inside your lungs, these tubes divide many times — like the branches of a tree — into many smaller tubes (bronchioles) that end in clusters of tiny air sa | Source
The air sacs have very thin walls full of tiny blood vessels (capillaries). The oxygen in the air you inhale passes into these blood vessels and enters your bloodstream. At the same time, carbon dioxide — a gas that is a waste product of metabolism —
The air sacs have very thin walls full of tiny blood vessels (capillaries). The oxygen in the air you inhale passes into these blood vessels and enters your bloodstream. At the same time, carbon dioxide — a gas that is a waste product of metabolism — | Source
Your lungs rely on the natural elasticity of the bronchial tubes and air sacs to force air out of your body. COPD causes them to lose their elasticity and partially collapse, which leaves some air trapped in your lungs when you exhale.
Your lungs rely on the natural elasticity of the bronchial tubes and air sacs to force air out of your body. COPD causes them to lose their elasticity and partially collapse, which leaves some air trapped in your lungs when you exhale. | Source
Emphysema. This lung disease causes destruction of the fragile walls and elastic fibers of the alveoli. Small airways collapse when you exhale, impairing airflow out of your lungs.
Emphysema. This lung disease causes destruction of the fragile walls and elastic fibers of the alveoli. Small airways collapse when you exhale, impairing airflow out of your lungs. | Source
Chronic bronchitis. In this condition, your bronchial tubes become inflamed and narrowed and your lungs produce more mucus, which can further block the narrowed tubes. You develop a chronic cough trying to clear your airways.
Chronic bronchitis. In this condition, your bronchial tubes become inflamed and narrowed and your lungs produce more mucus, which can further block the narrowed tubes. You develop a chronic cough trying to clear your airways. | Source
In the vast majority of cases, the lung damage that leads to COPD is caused by long-term cigarette smoking. But there are likely other factors at play in the development of COPD, such as a genetic susceptibility to the disease, because only about 20
In the vast majority of cases, the lung damage that leads to COPD is caused by long-term cigarette smoking. But there are likely other factors at play in the development of COPD, such as a genetic susceptibility to the disease, because only about 20 | Source
Other irritants can cause COPD, including cigar smoke, secondhand smoke, pipe smoke, air pollution and workplace exposure to dust, smoke or fumes.
Other irritants can cause COPD, including cigar smoke, secondhand smoke, pipe smoke, air pollution and workplace exposure to dust, smoke or fumes. | Source
In about 1 percent of people with COPD, the disease results from a genetic disorder that causes low levels of a protein called alpha-1-antitrypsin. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAt) is made in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream to help protect the l
In about 1 percent of people with COPD, the disease results from a genetic disorder that causes low levels of a protein called alpha-1-antitrypsin. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAt) is made in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream to help protect the l | Source
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency can affect the liver as well as the lungs. Damage to the liver can occur in infants and children, not just adults with long smoking histories. For adults with COPD related to AAt deficiency, treatment options are the sa
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency can affect the liver as well as the lungs. Damage to the liver can occur in infants and children, not just adults with long smoking histories. For adults with COPD related to AAt deficiency, treatment options are the sa | Source
The most significant risk factor for COPD is long-term cigarette smoking. The more years you smoke and the more packs you smoke, the greater your risk. Pipe smokers, cigar smokers, marijuana smokers and people exposed to large amounts of secondhand s
The most significant risk factor for COPD is long-term cigarette smoking. The more years you smoke and the more packs you smoke, the greater your risk. Pipe smokers, cigar smokers, marijuana smokers and people exposed to large amounts of secondhand s | Source
People with asthma who smoke. The combination of asthma, a chronic airway disease, and smoking increases the risk of COPD even more.
People with asthma who smoke. The combination of asthma, a chronic airway disease, and smoking increases the risk of COPD even more. | Source
Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals. Long-term exposure to chemical fumes, vapors and dusts in the workplace can irritate and inflame your lungs.
Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals. Long-term exposure to chemical fumes, vapors and dusts in the workplace can irritate and inflame your lungs. | Source
Age. COPD develops slowly over years, so most people are at least 35 to 40 years old when symptoms begin.
Age. COPD develops slowly over years, so most people are at least 35 to 40 years old when symptoms begin. | Source

References

1. All X-ray photos here are from DFM E-Group, in the photo and X-ray section.

2. Notes and explanations: Wikipedia, Essentials of Clinical Medicine by Kumar and Clark's, Medicinenet and Mayor's Clinic.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

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