I suppose it depends what you are mining for and the hazards might be more or less. I can tell you a little about coal mining as this work was in my family for many years, especially my Grandad and Brother-in-law. They did say that two of the biggest threats to mining coal in the pits they were in was flooding and roof collapses. But I believe that explosions can also occur. My Grandad was in one accident where his foot was crushed. Luckily he did survive but obviously his injured foot gave him pain for the rest of his life. Grandad also used to tell us about the huge rats down the coal pits and how aggressive they were. Quite a few miners received nasty bites on occasion.
Also later on in life you can develop certain conditions - especially respiratory - from having worked in the mines due to the coal dust. Major conditions in the form of various lung cancers can develope, for example - pneumoconiosis, mesothelioma, silicosis and other lung problems like emphysema. But other respiratory problems can develop depending on what kind of rock/stone you are mining or quarrying. Hope this helps.