I never fully realized the validity of this issue until my youngest child was misdiagnosed with craniosynostosis of the skull. A very ambitious pediatric neurosurgeon wanted to perform a very dangerous surgery to correct this "problem," that would later cause retardation in my child, supposedly. After being referred to a craniofacial plastic surgeon five hours away by a chance meeting with a parent of another child with this condition, my child was found to have had positional scaphocephaly (prominent in premies), which required no surgery and was easily corrected by the little old ladies in the daycare who rubbed his head back round with baby oil. This misdiagnosis could easily have cost my child his life, as the surgery is life threatening! I would say that the time to get a second opinion is when there is a question of major surgery.