I don't have a full answer, but I do know a bit of trivia. The problems of dental pain and replacing teeth have been around for millenia. George Washington had a wooden tooth. I've heard from a reliable source that dental pain was a leading cause of suicide in the 1800s.
Before anaesthesia and antiseptics, I believe that barbers did most surgical work, including pulling teeth.
It's a fair guess that dentistry, as we know it now, grew up alongside antiseptic, then aseptic surgery with anaesthesia starting in the late 1800.
You got me curious. You can find a bit more at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dentistry#History