Fact Check: Health Benefits and Side Effects of Green Tea
Types of tea
Tea leaves steeped in boiling water keep us healthy and physically fit. Tea suppresses appetite and boosts metabolism to help us in loosing body weight.
Green, black and oolong tea: As science developed, people began to examine the advantages and disadvantages of drinking tea scientifically. All the three varieties of tea viz., green, black, and oolong are prepared from the same tree 'Camellia sinensis' but difference is in the processing. Black tea is produced allowing leaves to oxidize and green tea is prepared from non-fermented leaves. Fresh cut leaf is lightly steamed to prepare green tea and this process inactivates the enzymes responsible for oxidation. Oolong tea production involves partial oxidation.
Benefits of green tea
The research results suggest that green tea is effective at suppressing appetite and boosting metabolism. Addition of sugar must be avoided since it negates the calorie-burning advantage. Three cups of green tea (steep 3-5 minutes) per day is the recommendation from health experts. Antioxidants in green tea can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damages caused by free radicles such as development of aging process besides several health problems such as heart diseases and cancer.
Weight loss: A report published in online version of obesity suggests that green tea consumption slowdowns the weight gain as Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) - a compound found in most green teas, reduced the ability to absorb fat and enhanced ability to use it.
Effect on Cholesterol: Men who drink green tea may have lower total cholesterol than those who do not drink green tea and poly-phenol in green tea may block the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and promote its excretion from the body as observed in clinical trials on animals. Green tea significantly reduced the blood levels of harmful LDL cholesterol in smokers as per the research reports available.
Protection against cancer: Cancer rates tend to be low in countries where people regularly consume green tea. However, there are no evidences to suggest that green tea is solely responsible for this less rate. Research suggests that the poly phenols in green tea may play some role in the prevention of cancer. Benefits of poly phenols of green tea are indicated either in terms of less spread of cancer or in terms of prolonged survival period of patients. Also, benefits of green tea are indicated in bladder, ovarian, prostrate, and breast cancer.
Colon, esophageal, lung and pancreatic cancer: In case of colon, esophageal, lung and pancreatic cancer, results are inconclusive and further research is needed. Although laboratory studies suggest that green tea helped in reducing the risk of prostate cancer, it stimulated the genes that cause cells to be less sensitive to chemotherapy drugs. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main poly-phenol in green tea that have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties.
Stomach Cancer: Studies on relationship between stomach cancer and use of green tea showed contradictory results. In few studies it had inhibitory effects, in others no relationship could be established while in some studies green tea increased the risk of stomach cancer. Green tea is believed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of toxic substances such as alcohol. In mice, green tea helps protect against the development of liver tumors. Results suggest that catechin, a polyphenol present in green tea, may help treat viral hepatitis as observed with catechin isolated from green tea and used in very high concentrations. However, the same polyphenol is never present in such high quantities in green tea as used in the study.
Protection against liver and coronary artery disease: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) didn't allow tea makers to use labels to claim that green tea reduces the risk of heart disease in absence of any credible evidence. Clinic survey, however, shows that there are less chances of developing liver disorders in men who drink more than 10 cups of green tea per day.
Weight loss:Research suggests that the combination of green tea and caffeine helped in losing weight. Catechins are considered responsible for the fat-burning effect of green tea.
Genital warts, arthritis and dental decay: Few clinical studies support these beliefs that green tea may help in treating genital warts, reducing the inflammation in arthritis and effective in treating tooth decay.
What is your say?
Is it really worth to use green tea ?
Precautions in using with other drugs
Trials have shown that chemicals present in green tea may interact with few other drugs. Hence, people using these drugs should avoid the use of green tea especially when they are using these drugs.
1. Consumption of green tea, concentrated green tea extract, and other green tea products (such as EGCG capsules) be avoided for patients undergoing bortezomib treatment.
2. If green tea is consumed empty stomach, there may be chances of liver damage as observed in some research studies.
3. People detected with heart problems, kidney disorders, stomach ulcers, and psychological disorders should avoid green tea.
4. It's safe for pregnant and breast-feeding women to avoid the consumption of green tea .
5. It may inhibit the actions of adenosine, increase the effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics, reduce the sedative effects of diazepam and lorazepam, and use with aspirin may increase the risk of bleeding.
6. People should avoid green tea intake if they are receiving chemotherapy for prostate cancer.
7. Consumption of green tea may prolong the effect of oral contraceptives
8. There are several other drugs which may interact with chemicals present in green tea.
On the basis of the above facts it may be concluded that detailed studies are required to validate the claims made for positive effects of green tea and people should be aware of its interactions with other drugs.
Side effects/ credible evidences
Dry green tea contains substantial amounts of caffeine which can cause nausea, insomnia, or frequent urination. FDA found very limited credible evidence for qualified health claims specifically for green tea and breast cancer and for green tea and prostate cancer. Similarly, FDA found no credible evidence to support qualified health claims for green tea or green tea extract and a reduction of a number of risk factors associated with Cardiovascular diseases. However, FDA approved Kunecatechins ointment (based on green tea) which is indicated for the topical treatment of external genital and perianal warts.
How to Prepare?
A cup of green tea has 1-2 calories if you drink it without adding any milk or sugar. One may burn these calories with a walking of just 5-10 minutes. Amount of caffeine in green tea varies from manufactures and type of green tea. Amount can vary from 30-50 mg or even more in 230 ml prepared green tea. Green tea is less acidic than black tea, lemon tea and coffee. This shows that geen tea has less calories than coffee and also less acidic than later. In India, there are several manufacturers of green tea including Organic India, Lipton, LaPlant, Himalayanetc. Green tea can be prepared as per the procedure given below.
- Take a cup of the drinking water, boil it and then allow to cool for 3-5 minutes.,
- Place the tea bag in a cup and pour the water onto the teabag.
- Allow the teabag to infuse for 3-5 minutes depending on your taste. For stronger taste, brew a little longer.
- Remove the teabag and sip the green tea.
© 2009 C V Singh