ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Diabetes type 2

Updated on November 18, 2009

Control type 2 diabetes

Insulin resistance is detectable before the onset of diabetes type 2.

Together with other signs such as accumulation of abdominal fat and increased lipid deposits in muscle tissue you may be able to slow down the onset of the disease or even avoid it altogether.

Before the onset of diabetes type 2 the body will be releasing increased amounts of insulin into the bloodstream literally to mop up the overload coming from an increased level of blood sugars.

Did you know that about 100 million people in the world are being treated for type 2 diabetes and this number is on the increase.

Insulin resistance in itself is not responsible for the onset of type 2 diabetes. Both insulin resistance and impaired secretion of insulin within the body are two factors that are required for type 2 diabetes to manifest.

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by three defects;

  • Insulin resistance
  • Failure of beta cells to secrete insulin
  • Elevated hepatic glucose production

Type 2 diabetes is also known as non insulin type diabetes.

This type of diabetes does not usually appear until adulthood but unfortunately in recent years children as young as 12 have been diagnosed due to obesity problems.


Blood glucose is the fuel for human energy. The food that we eat is eventually changed into blood glucose which is transported by the bloodstream to skeletal muscle cells for storage. Once there it is readily available for the working muscle. Sometimes we provide too much energy through eating much larger portions than we need. Regardless of this it is still processed and sent in the bloodstream for storage.  We can say that two thirds of normal energy expenditure within the body is used while at rest the rest is used in more strenuous action .

Energy is produced for the body through the oxidation of fats, carbohydrates and  proteins. In our bodies energy is stored as glycogen in skeletal muscles and as triglycerides in fat cells.

After a meal insulin levels in the blood increases.

We also store glucose converted in to glycogen in the liver. When the bloods glucose levels are high the release from the liver is suppressed.   Also when blood sugar is elevated insulin will be released to assist it into appropriate cells.

What happens to metabolism in type 2 diabetes?

Over time the insulin releasing cells get tired producing to compensate for the constant rush of elevated blood sugar levels. This is called hyperglycemia. At the onset of diabetes type 2 the insulin levels in the blood are severely impaired, they are in a constant high level.

Levels that are much higher than the body can cope with. The increased level of blood sugar is also sometimes known as glucose toxicity.


When you become resistant to the effect of insulin it affects both the skeletal muscle and liver.

Suppression of glucose from the liver means that the skeletal muscle needs much higher insulin levels in order to take up glucose into the muscle for normal functioning.

I would like to mention that Insulin resistance is not always caused by obesity it can be caused by several conditions such as  pregnancy, ageing and some infections.  However, there is a strong correlation between abdominal obesity and the total body glucose uptake.

Diabetes is a serious disease, it is subject to the development of many complications.

These complications affect large vessels such as in the heart, cerebral and those found in the peripheral circulation. In addition to this the small vessels found in the kidneys and eyes can also be affected. If this is not bad enough it can also be hazardous for nerves and other organs.

It is a bad attitude that contributes to the idea that it is ok to get diabetes nowadays because it can be treated.

Although treatment can be found and it is getting better every year I would like to say that there is no better treatment than PREVENTION.


In some cases it may be genetic but if it is related to insulin resistance which is being compensated by insulin hypersecretion with signs that beta cells are gradually being exhausted there may be a chance that the damage can be reduced. In some cases the onset of diabetes can be delayed or even prevented.

The known preventions include lifestyle changes where calorie controlled diets are followed  for reduction of weight and exercise.

A new type of oral  anti-hyperglycaemic medication is improving insulin sensitivity for many type 2 diabetic patients. This medication has also shown a positive reduction in systolic and mean arterial blood pressure. They also show vasculo- and reno-protective effects.

This once a day administered medication significantly improves glucose and lipid metabolism. With decreased proteinuria glomerular injury is prevented and this protects against diseases such as arteriosclerosis of the kidneys.

The following should be monitored on a regular basis when diabetes type 2 is diagnosed.

  • Micro-albumin levels
  • Blood pressure
  • Eye examination
  • Feet examinations
  • Lipid profiles

Your doctor will from time to time do an  test HbA1c. Ideally, every 3 months.

This test measures what your average blood glucose level (bg) has been for the last few months.

In your blood a hemoglobin molecule contains iron and carries oxygen around the body, delivering it to cells. The molecule is made in your bones, in the bone marrow, and lives for about 3 months. During it's life, glucose molecules one by one "stick" to the hemoglobin molecules. The more glucose that's in the bloodstream, the more sticks to the hemoglobin. If you remove the hemoglobin from the blood, and measure how much glucose is stuck to it, you can find out roughly how much glucose has been in the blood during the life of the molecule.

The aim is normally to get your figure near the upper end of that range. If your HbA1c is too low, near the bottom end of the reference range, it may be that your control is very good, but it's more likely that you're having far too many hypos.

A typical normal range might be 4.3%-5.9%
At this reference range, if your HbA1c is above 10%, there's plenty of room for improvement.
If it's 6.5% that's pretty good.
5.9% would be classed as excellent.

Be aware that a low HbA1c is not necessarily good. If you are having highs and lows which swing from the one to the other It may disguise the fact that you are having a lot of highs and a lot of hypos . To get best results it is also important to check blood glucose levels.

Working to have a steady blood glucose level is in the long run much healthier.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)