ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

OSTEOPOROSIS

Updated on February 29, 2012

Obesity should be corrected

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic disease of bone and is found most frequently in elderly women when it is known as post menopausal osteoporosis. It may occur in elderly men (senile osteoporosis) and rarely in younger people (Idiopathic osteoporosis). There is a wide variation in the geographical and racial incidence of generalized osteoporosis. For example, in the United States it is more prevalent in Caucasian than in Africans.

Aetiology :

A physiological decrease in skeletal mass occurs in all persons from the age of 40 to 50 onwards; the process is more marked in women, and in some individuals it would appear to be accelerated by factors which are largely unknown. In post menopausal a failure of estrogen secretion and in men diminished androgen formation may contribute.

In women post menopausal osteoporosis Calcium absorption is reduced; serum1,25 (OH) 2D tends to be low. Calcitonin secretion is lower in women than in men and declines with age. A major function of this hormone appears to be prevention of unwanted bone resorption. Calcitonin levels our strikingly increased by estrogen in post menopausal women.

Inadequate physical activity promotes generalized osteoporosis and may, in part at least, account for high incidence of this condition in affluent societies. Immobilisation by splinting, inflammation or pain is the main cause of local osteoporosis.

Generalized osteoporosis may be secondary to prolong treatment with adrenal corticosteroids; it occurs in various endocrine disorders, notably Cushing's Syndrome and Hypogonadism, and also in severe malnutrition and chronic renal disease. Osteoporosis, like anemia may therefore be end result of a number of diverse process.

Clinical Features:

  1. The patient is usually an elderly woman who is otherwise healthy.
  2. There may be no disability despite obvious radiological abnormality.
  3. There are episodes of severe pain usually due to fracture of the brittle bones often occurring after minimal trauma.
  4. The lumber and thoracic vertebrae, neck of femur, the upper end of the humerus and the lower end of the radius are the commonest site of the fracture.
  5. More persistent back ache is a later feature of osteoporosis due to progressive compression or collapse of several vertebrae.
  6. This may result in loss of stature and in kyphosis.
  7. Healing is not impaired as it occurs pain usually subsides.
  8. Persistent elsewhere is not a feature of osteoporosis but is more characteristic of osteomalacia, paget's disease or skeletal metastasis.
  9. In contrast to these conditions there is also a tendency for spontaneous improvement to occur in osteoporosis.
  10. Ideopathic osteoporosis is occasionally found in younger person in whom it also tends to be self limiting.
  11. The radiological changes are more marked in axial skeleton than in the limbs.
  12. They consist of loss of bone density, reduction in the number and size of trabeculae and thinning of the cortex.
  13. The upper and lower surfaces of the lumbar and thoracic vertebral bodies become biconcave and later compression or collapse causes anterior wedging.
  14. In blood, the Calcium, Phosphorous and Alkaline Phosphotase levels are normal in contrast to OSTEOMALACIA

Treatment :

  1. Any primary factor such as excessive corticosteroid therapy or endocrine disease should be corrected if possible.
  2. The patient should know that the natural history of the disease is characterised by spontaneous improvement and that suitable regular exercise is beneficial.
  3. The patient should remain ambulant if symptoms permit.
  4. The use of spinal support is undesirable.
  5. Immobilisation following a fracture should be limited to the part involved and accompanied by graduated by remedial exercise.
  6. It should remain in mind that OSTEOMALACIA can coexist with fracture of the neck of the femur.
  7. Cyclical OESTROGEN therapy may be prescribed for otherwise healthy post menopausal women
  8. An adequate intake of VITAMIN D and CALCIUM should be ensured. Cow's MILK is the best source of Calcium, half a litre provides about 600 mg of Calcium.
  9. Obesity must be avoided and if present should be corrected.
  10. Floride and also 1Alpha OH-D, combined with Oestrogens are under investigation. There is evidence that Calcium supplements are beneficial.
  11. The use of Sodium Floride and also 1 Alpha OD-D, combined with Oestrogens are under investigation..





Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • drdspervez profile imageAUTHOR

      drdspervez 

      8 years ago from Pakistan

      thanks WTP for your concern

    • drdspervez profile imageAUTHOR

      drdspervez 

      8 years ago from Pakistan

      Thank you for your kind comments, WTP. :)

    • profile image

      WTP 

      8 years ago

      Than you drdspervez for giving yet another insightful information in the easiest possible manner!! A lay man would easily understand what osteoporosis actually is!! =)

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)