ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)-A Leading Cause of Female Infertility

Updated on January 1, 2019
Sahanadas73 profile image

Sahana is pursuing PhD in the field of medical informatics & medical decision support system. She writes on the subject of women's health.

Ovary with cyst
Ovary with cyst | Source

What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a endocrine system disorder that affects women in their reproductive years. The condition arises due to the imbalance of estrogen and progesterone. This leads to the benign masses or cysts on the ovaries. About 1 in 10 women suffer from this problem.

PCOS is difficult to identify. There are several symptoms and a patient may not have all of them. Though the name 'polycystic' means multiple cysts, not all women with multiple cysts have PCOS and not all PCOS patients have multiple cysts.

Women with PCOS have ovaries that are two to five times the normal size. Ovaries have clusters of small, pearl-sized cysts which contain fluids and immature eggs.

PCOS affects menstrual cycle, ability to conceive, cardiac function and the overall appearance.

Causes of PCOS

PCOS is caused mainly due to the hormonal imbalance.

Hormonal Imbalance

Excess Androgen

Ovaries produce a small amount of male sex hormone called androgen. But in case of a patient of PCOS the production of this hormone is slightly higher than normal. This leads to problems in ovulation, formation of acne and growth of unwanted facial and body hair.

Excess Luteinising Hormone (LH)

LH is a ovulation stimulating hormone, but too much of it may have adverse effects on the ovaries.

Reduced Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG)

SHBG is a protein that binds androgen and reduces its side effect.


Genetics plays a role. PCOS runs in the family. One is likely to get PCOS if mother, sister or aunt suffer from it.

Insulin Resistance

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas to control the glucose level in the blood. If the body is insulin resistance then glucose cannot be moved from the blood into the tissues. The body responds by producing extra insulin. High level of insulin leads to the production of more androgen.

Insulin resistance also causes weight gain and excess body fat in turn produces more insulin.

Low Grade Inflammation

Many patients of PCOS are found to have low grade inflammation. These stimulate the production of more androgens.

Facial Hair
Facial Hair | Source
Acne | Source
Hair Loss in PCOS
Hair Loss in PCOS | Source

PCOS Symptoms

Irregular Menstrual Cycle

Women with PCOS usually have irregular menstrual cycle or the period stops all together. An irregular menstrual cycle is defined as:

  1. less than or equal to 8 menstrual cycles per year.
  2. menstrual cycle longer than 35 days.
This is caused due to the high level of androgen and insulin which interrupt monthly cycle of ovulation and hence the menstruation.


Hirsutism is the growth of excess hair in certain body parts where usually men have hair. These regions are sideburns, cheeks, chin, lower abdomen, chest and around the nipple. It occurs due to the raised level of male hormone androgen.

About 60% of women with PCOS have hirsutism, although hirsutism can develop in women without PCOS. The effect of hirsutism is more pronounced in certain ethnic groups than others.


Excess androgen increases the activity of oil producing glands on the skin, leading to increased acne.

Hair Loss

Excess level of androgen leads to thinning of hair at the scalp and receding hair line in the front.


Excess level of both androgen and insulin interferes with ovulation. Either it completely stops or becomes irregular. As a result women fail to conceive. Those who conceive have a higher risk of miscarriage. Weight gain also increases the chance of infertility.

Psychological Disorder

Approximately 29% of women with PCOS suffer from depression. It is believed that PCOS related depression is mainly due to hormonal imbalance..

Hirsutism, weight gain, infertility, severe acne and general problem with femininity and sexuality also plays a role in reducing the self-esteem of a woman.

Other symptoms related to PCOS are decreased sex-drive, deepening of voice and decrease in breast size.

PCOS is marked by decrease in female sex hormone and increase in male sex hormone androgen.

Summary of PCOS Symptoms
Summary of PCOS Symptoms | Source

Could you be suffering from PCOS

view quiz statistics


There is no specific test to diagnose PCOS. The diagnosis is done mainly based on the 'principal of exclusion' i.e. after considering all the symptoms, physicians rule out other disorders.

Physical Exam

Height and weight are measured to check for obesity. Pelvic exam is done look for signs of PCOS such as swollen ovaries or swollen clitoris.

Blood Tests

Blood tests are done to check the levels of hormones and insulin. Doctors may also want to check for cholesterol and triglyceride which usually are at elevated level with PCOS.

Ultrasonography (USG)

Doctors recommend USG to see the appearance of ovaries and the thickness of uterine lining.

Ultrasound Image of Normal and PCOS ovaries
Ultrasound Image of Normal and PCOS ovaries | Source

All About PCOS

Ovarian Wedge Resection
Ovarian Wedge Resection | Source
Ovarian Drilling
Ovarian Drilling | Source
Laparoscopic Ovarian Wedge Resection
Laparoscopic Ovarian Wedge Resection | Source


Treatment of PCOS focuses on controlling the symptom rather than on curing the disease. The type of treatment administered varies from patient to patient and the severity of the symptoms.

Diet and Lifestyle Change

Doctors put emphasis on the need to control the weight through low calorie, healthy diet and regular exercise, Studies have shown that about 5% weight loss can reduce insulin and androgen levels and trigger ovulation and menstrual cycle.


1. Regularizing Periods

Women who don't want to get pregnant may be given birth control pills to regulate the periods. These pills contain a combination of estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) which help reduce the androgen production.

Sometimes skin patches or vaginal rings are given instead of birth control pills to regulate levels of hormone.

2. Regulating Ovulation

If the woman is planning pregnancy she is given medication to help ovulate. Oral anti-estrogen medications are given for the first part of the menstrual cycle. If the patient still fails to become pregnant then follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are injected.

3. Unwanted Hair Growth Control

Doctors may prescribe birth control pills to curb the production of androgen. They may also give medication to block the effects of androgen on the skin. But the use of this later drug may cause birth defects. Hence it cannot be given to women who are planning to conceive.

Surgical Treatment

1. Ovarian Wedge Resection

A part of the ovary is surgically removed. It was found that 95% women resumed regular menstrual cycle post surgery. But the technique had some undesirable side effects. It led to tissue adhesion around the ovary and the fallopian tube, affecting the fertility of the patient. The procedure thus fell out of favor.

2. Ovarian Drilling

With the advent of laparoscopy, a technique called ovarian drilling became a popular treatment for women who failed to lose weight or did not respond to fertility medicine.

It works by removing a portion of the central or stroma of the ovary using laser. It was found to trigger ovulation, but again not without side effects. Studies have shown that burning of the ovarian surface with laser leads to tissue adhesion.

3. Robotic Laparoscopic Ovarian Wedge Resection

This is the best possible surgical option for PCOS. Doctors remove a wedge shaped section of each ovary. Edges of the ovary are sewed back together using special micro-surgical techniques to prevent tissue adhesion.

PCOS management places strong emphasis on healthy lifestyle along with targeted medical therapy as required.

Dietary Dos and Don't s of PCOS

(click column header to sort results)
Low sugar index food
High sugar index food,
Whole grain foods
Processed or refined food
Foods high in fibre content
High carbohydrate food
Green leafy vegetables like spinach, lettuce
Starchy vegetable like potato
Fresh fruits
Canned fruits
Foods rich in essential fatty acids, unsaturated fats, vitamins,
Saturated fats, transfats
Foods rich in natural protein such as nuts, almonds, beans etc
Fast foods like pastas, chocolates
8-10 glass of water each day
Carbonated drinks

Laparoscopic Ovarian Wedge Resection


  • For PCOS patients the entry point to the process of treatment can be through their GP, Dermatologist, Gynecologist or Endocrinologist.
  • Between 15% - 30% women with PCOS have regular periods.
  • Even a small weightless can trigger ovulation and regularization of menstrual cycle.
  • Oral contraceptive pills are the primary method of treatment for those who don't want to conceive.
  • Strong emphasis is placed on healthy lifestyle.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • Sahanadas73 profile imageAUTHOR


      2 years ago from India

      Since PCOS is due to hormonal imbalance, it can occur at any age. Its effect may continue even after menopause. People with PCOS can get pregnant and some of them even have problem free pregnancy, but yes its effect may continue even after delivery. The best way to treat it is through diet and weight control. I'm going to write about that soon.

    • profile image

      Bansari Deb Majumder 

      2 years ago

      Very important topic u have discussed specially for common people like us.Can PCOS effect women after delivery?

    • Sahanadas73 profile imageAUTHOR


      2 years ago from India

      Thanks for your suggestion. Yes, I have a plant to write something on the natural remedy for PCOS.

    • profile image

      Kaushik Goswami 

      2 years ago

      Good & informative article. I know people who suffered from it and suffered severe setback in terms of their confidence level. It will be better if you please include something more on the diets of PCOS or some natural remedies, if there are any available.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)