ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Types of Surgery

Updated on April 28, 2011

Surgery is the branch of medicine concerned with manipulative and instrumental techniques to repair, reconstruct, and correct deformities, defects, and diseased or injured parts of the body. Surgery can be classified as minor or major. Minor surgery involves procedures that do not endanger life, such as closure of wounds, repair of dislocations and fractures, and removal of blemishes and warts. Such surgery is often performed in a physician's office or clinic. Major surgery involves operations in which the greatest caution and skills are required of the surgeon, such as brain surgery, surgery of the chest and heart, and removal of diseased organs. Major surgery requires the facilities of a surgical hospital and the cooperation of many medical specialists.

Largely because of advances in surgery and other branches of medicine, the Me expectancy of newborn infants has doubled since the 1850s. Surgery has been especially successful in combating cancer, heart disease, and various kinds of malfunctions, deformities, and injuries. For example, plastic surgery now restores hope to deformed and mutilated persons who 30 years ago could not be helped. Appendicitis and the Caesarean section, once extremely dangerous, are now seldom fatal. Anesthesia, the use of sterile techniques, antibiotics, blood transfusions, electronic devices, precise instruments, and a great deal of new knowledge have so transformed surgery that it little resembles surgery a century ago.

A major advance in surgery was the successful transplantation in 1963 of several entire organs. Lungs, cartilage, blood vessels, skin, spleen, aortic valves, and teeth can be transplanted from a volunteer donor to another person, providing the tissues are compatible. Researchers in medical engineering are now investigating the possibility of electromechanical hearts, kidneys, and lungs that will be small enough to be implanted internally and will operate from an external power source.

Source

Major Branches of Surgery

Minor and major operations that do not require the knowledge and skills of a specialized surgeon, such as repair of accidental injuries, appendectomies, and tonsillectomies, are often performed by general surgeons. A general surgeon is a physician who, after earning his M.D. degree, has spent a minimum of four additional years studying and gaining experience as an intern and resident surgeon in an accredited hospital. He can then be accredited by the American Board of Surgery. However, surgery has become so complex that difficult operations are usually performed by specialists, surgeons who have spent additional years studying particular branches of surgery.

One of the special branches of surgery is thoracic surgery, which involves operations of the chest. Many lung disorders, including tuberculosis, lung cancer, and pneumothorax, can often be corrected by surgical removal or repair of the lung. Heart disorders that can now be surgically corrected include coronary artery disease and defective heart valves.

Another branch of surgery is orthopedic surgery, which deals with the correction of deformities of the limbs, bones, and joints. Examples include repair of compound fractures, correction of congenital defects, and removal of bone cancers. Arthrodesis, or fusion of bones to give stability to joints, and arthroplasty, or construction of new joints, are other procedures performed by orthopedic surgeons.

Ophthalmic surgery involves operations on the eye and eye muscles, such as removal of the lens because of cataract and adjustments of eye muscles to correct cross-eye.

Plastic surgery gained impetus during World War II, when it became necessary to repair disfigurements and scars in wounded servicemen. Plastic surgeons can reconstruct an ear, nose, jaw, and other missing or disfigured parts of the body and can supply new outer skin by means of grafting techniques. Other surgical specialties include brain, gastrointestinal, vascular, and obstetrical surgery.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      Grace 

      7 years ago

      What other types of surgery do we have

    • profile image

      Joan 

      7 years ago

      Is haematology also a branch of surgery?

    • profile image

      John 

      7 years ago

      Please try also list other branches of surgery.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)