ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel


Updated on August 29, 2016


Surgery places great physiologic and psychological stress on the body. Nutritional demands are greatly increased; Deficiencies can easily develop and sooner or later lead to serious clinical problems. Thus careful atten­tion to preoperative preparation of the patient and to his postoperative therapeutic needs reduces complications and provides resources for better wound healing and a more rapid recovery.



When time permits, in cases of elective surgery rather than emergency situations, nutritional preparation of the patient for sur­gery should correct any nutrient deficiencies that exist, The diet should also provide op­timum reserves for the period of surgery itself and for the time immediately afterward, when no oral feedings can be taken, These nutrient stores particularly demand protein, calories, vitamins, and minerals.


The most common nutritional deficiency in surgical patients is that of protein. Tissue and plasma reserves are imperative to fortify the patient for blood losses during surgery and for tissue breakdown in the immediate postoperative period.


If protein is to be used for its building purposes, sufficient non-protein calories must always be provided for energy demands. If underweight is present to any degree, sufficient extra calories have to be provided to build the weight up to maintenance level. Glycogen stores in the liver are necessary to spare protein for tissue synthesis. If the patient is overweight, some weight reduction is indicated to reduce surgical risk.

Vitamins and minerals

Tissue stores of vitamins are needed for the added metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins. Any deficiency state such as anemia should be corrected. Electrolytes and fluids should be in balance and correction made of any dehydration acidosis or alkalosis.

Immediate preoperative period

In the usual preparation for surgery, nothing is given by mouth for at least 8 hours prior to surgery; this assures that the stomach has no retained food at the time of the operation. Food in the stomach may be vomited and aspirated during anesthesia or recovery from it. Also any food present may increase the possibility of postoperative gastric retention or expansion or interfere with the surgical procedure itself.

If the surgery is of an emergency nature, no time is available for building up nutritional reserves. This is all the more reason for maintaining an optimum nutrient reserve supply constantly through an optimum daily diet.

health matters

health matters
health matters | Source


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)