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Mabon: The Ritual of the Autumn Equinox
In the middle of the month of September is the Autumn Equinox, to some it is just another day that marks the passage of time, yet to many Pagans, it is a religious holiday that marks the end of the second harvest and soon the end of the Wheel of the Year. The Autumn Equinox, known to Pagans as Mabon is a time for celebrations with bonfires, religious rites, telling of stories and the passing down of traditions. It is the time of the year when both the sun and the moon are seen as equals, before the darkness of winter takes hold. Each Pagan celebrates Mabon in their own way, unless they are part of a coven, then they practice the same ritual as the members of their coven. For those who are solitary practitioners, like me, attending a Mabon ritual with a coven is a new religious experience, much like a Baptist attending a Lutheran service. The ritual of Mabon that I will witness as an outsider is one filled with tradition as well as mystery and magic that spans the decades. Mabon is a lesser Sabbath for Pagans, yet it is an important occasion to finish tasks that have taken up most of the year so that Samhain, the New Year, can be celebrated without thoughts of past tasks. Celebrating rituals such as Mabon help to reestablish the bond between the practitioners and their craft, and facilitate the potential to share their faith with others who want to join Wicca or those whom are simply curious. Mabon is celebrated with rituals and a feast, signaling the end of the second harvest and the coming of the dark.
On Friday the 21st of September, a local coven of witches will take part in their yearly Mabon ritual. I have asked the permission of the High Priestess to observe the ritual and she has granted me permission as long as I keep their identity confidential via alias and describe the ceremony in general terms without writing down their spells. This is important to them because spells that are shared within the coven are for the coven only and passed down through the maternal line of this coven. The location is at a local park that they also asked to be kept a secret, for they do not want others to interrupt their ceremonies. Much like a Christian church, those who might find fault with their religious practices are not welcome when a ritual is taking place and therefore the location is only known to the coven and those they trust with the information. The reason why it takes place outdoors is because with Wicca the church is nature itself. I chose to observe a coven celebration of Mabon is that it helps me understand my own connection to Wicca and will allow me to share my faith with those who share it as well for the first time.
The Wheel of the Year
The ritual celebration of Mabon spans many centuries as a vital cycle of the Wheel of the Year. “These cycles are widely celebrated in eight seasonal festivals, called Sabbaths, spread evenly throughout the year.” (Roundtree, 2010, pg. 19) These cycles include, in order, Samhain, also known as Halloween, Yule, the winter solstice; Imbolc, Ostra, the spring equinox; Beltane, also known as May Day; Litha, the summer solstice; Lughnasadh, and Mabon, the autumnal equinox. The ritual celebrations associated with these Sabbaths are a large part of the Pagan religion. “Ritual is an important part of most magical traditions, because it is seen to be a holistic healing space from the everyday world where the magician can contact her or his inner world and the wider forces and energies of the cosmos.” (Greenwood, 2000, pg. 43) With rituals, the commitment to the religion is renewed.
In the Mabon ritual I observed was a ritual that was unfamiliar to me because it was with a small coven whose traditions I did not know. Within Pagan religions, each ritual is different with regard to who is participating. “Usually it is decided well in advance which ritual is going to be done – often rituals are specially written, handed out in advance and lines learnt by heart –.” (Greenwood, 2000, pg. 24) These are often reserved to those who are a part of that particular coven. Being a solitary practitioner, my rituals are written by me, the only others who know of the rituals are family or close friends who chose to participate in various rituals or Sabbaths. The High Priestess, who will be known as HP, was very welcoming of my interest to observe their Mabon ritual, yet though I am Wiccan as well, she was insistent upon anonymity for herself and her small coven of five. After a very long and gruesome history, Witches by nature are suspicious of those who wish to learn their secrets without some rite of passage to initiate the newcomer into the fold. HP and her coven asked to be address by their magical names.
Magical or craft names, are a way that Witches can protect themselves. “A magical/spiritual name chosen by a Witch for working in the Craft, and may be used openly, in Pagan community settings.” (Moura, 2004, pg. 29) Some covens request that a special coven name be given to initiates that enter the coven, one that is separate from their craft name. Aside from the HP, I observed Ravine, Nubia, Echo, and Faula in the Mabon ritual. The coven was made up of all female Witches between the ages of 19-42. The primary ethnicity was Caucasian, although Nubia appeared to be of African American descent as well as Caucasian and Ravine told me she was from the Cowlitz tribe. Their economic status could not be accurately determined, although they did not appear to be either part of the 1% or lower income.
The women arrived at the secret location in their own vehicles, aside from the HP who carpooled with Echo and Faula. I later learned that Echo and Faula were the HP’s daughters. When they stepped out of their vehicles I noticed that each was wearing a dark cloak, the primary coven wearing green while the HP wore red. I was lead into the woods with the women, they spoke not about the ritual at hand, but about daily events; first weeks of school stories, work issues, family antics; this showed me that they were not just associated on a religious level, but a personal one as well. The path to the circle was understandably well hidden. Wicca is a religion that is not unfamiliar with disturbances during rituals. “I experienced one night ritual in a wood in the middle of London that was rudely disrupted by a drunken man who would not leave. His presence affected everyone, and eventually the ritual had to be abandoned.” (Greenwood, 2000, pg. 27) When we reached the circle, I saw that there was an altar already set in place. The altar is the centerpiece of many religions and in Wicca is the cornerstone in which the religion is based. Upon a basic altar one will find a goddess area/both area/god area, spirit bowl, offering plate, candle, and incense. On more complex altars one will find a chalice, water bowl, pentacle, salt bowl, wand, bell, cauldron, athame or bolline, supplies, libation bowl, and a book of shadows.
Setting up an Altar for Mabon
On this altar there was the basic goddess area/both area/god area/ spirit bowl, offering plate, candle, incense, chalice, bell, water bowl, salt bowl, pentacle, cauldron, food supplies, and a book of shadows. “Goddess area/ both area/ god area may have candles or a representation, such as statues, stones, a conch shell for the Goddess and a small antler rack or animal horn for the God, with a candle or other item to represent both Goddess and God together.” (Moura, 2004, pg. 23) The area belonging to the goddess, god, and both combined are similar to a Christian cross upon a Christian altar. In the spirit bowl contained hard apple cider and the offering plate held wheat bread as well as oats to honor the celebration of the second harvest.
This was a coven who believed in participating in rituals while skyclad. To be skyclad is to be fully nude and with nothing adorning the body. I was surprised by this because I thought it was too cold to participate in the ritual skyclad. The nudity did not offend me, I myself have often preformed rituals skyclad, but it was either summer or I was indoors. Performing rituals skyclad is embraced by many covens and witches; it is to help remove the last of the barriers between the practitioners and the goddess and god.
Opening and Closing the Circle
The beginning of the ritual started with the casting of a circle. “The circle becomes sacred space, separate from the everyday world and everyday consciousness, a magical un-place where the customary boundaries between dreams, desires, fantasies, realities, seen and un-seen, what is and what might be, alter.” (Roundtree, 2010, pg. 14) The HP began casting the circle by lighting the candles and incense while the coven began sweeping the debris from the circle with their besoms, also known as brooms. Once the circle was clear, in a clockwise motion the HP walked around the circle sprinkling salt, she did this three times. When she came back into the circle she approached the altar and rang the bell three times. She picked up a white candle and raised it to the North before her, calling upon the guardians to protect them while they were in the circle, she did the same for the remaining cardinal directions. “Experience is gained through ritual and the calling in of the spirits of the four quarters of the witchcraft circle: east, south, west and north. These correspond to intellect, will, emotions and the body in the human microcosm.” (Greenwood, 2000, pg. 41) After addressing the North, East, West, and South; she replaced the candle and asked their primary goddess and god for their blessing and help with the ritual, the HP then concluded the circle casting by ringing the bell nine times.
After speaking for a few moments about the meaning of Mabon and give thanks to the goddess and the god for the bounty of the second harvest, the coven repeat her words and they chant together as the HP then places the white candle in the cauldron and sprinkles it with herbs. She then rings the bell three times and begins to close the circle. “When the ritual is finished the reverse procedure is adopted by the ‘closing’ of the circle and the return to the ordinary world, which is seen to be accompanied by ‘grounding’, the re-establishment of normal everyday consciousness.” (Greenwood, 2000, pg. 46) The closing of the circle consists of thanking the goddess and god for their blessings, walking clockwise around the circle and sprinkling salt, then blowing out the candle. The coven ended the ritual with sprinkling fruits, nuts, berries, and seeds around the outside of the circle for the animals to feed upon before they hibernate for the oncoming winter. After the food is distributed the coven and I ate oatcakes and wheat bread covered in honey and drank crisp apple cider while speaking about day to day events in our lives. Each woman felt her connection to Wicca and their goddess and god renewed until Samhain and the next ritual.
What is Mabon?
The Importance of Mabon
Mabon is the second harvest and the second to last Sabbath cycle on the Wheel of the Year. “For Wiccans in most parts of the world, this Sabbath is a further celebration of the harvest season and an acknowledgement of turning towards the darker, colder part of the year’s cycle, equinox being the time when daylight and darkness are equal.” (Roundtree, 2010, pg. 110) In other parts of the United States it is celebrated in the same manner as the ritual that I observed. “Participants formed a circle around a tree and a small table that held a votive candle and a small caldron, symbolizing fire and water. Three Druids held three crossed sickles and pulled them apart to consecrate the land at the beginning of the ritual.” (Kay, 2006). Herbs are especially important in many Pagan rituals and Mabon is not an exception.
The herbs involved with Mabon are used in the ritual as well as decorating the altar. Acorns, ferns, grains, sage, thistle, vegetable, and roses are all used. Grains above all play an important part in the Mabon ritual. “Baked goods made with new grain are eaten in honor of the Green Man, the living spirit of vegetation, who sacrifices himself in autumn so that others may carry on.” (Hopman, 1995, pg. 83) The acorns and vegetables are used to feed the animals of the forest for they are connected to humans through the goddess. “It is considered wise to pick one of each flower and vegetable of the harvest (choose only the very best of specimens, free of blemish or blight) and leave it on an outdoor shrine for the nature spirits in thanks for their kind work all summer.”(Hopman,1995,Pg. 83) The connection between humans and nature is particularly important in rituals that primarily take place outdoors. After the ritual is a feast, usually the coven will gather at the home of the HP to partake in the feast. “The essential nature of this feast is the drawing together and drawing in of the family as it prepares to face the chaos of the season of Samhain. The best tableware and finest foods are displayed as mead and music fill the house with cheer.” (Hopman, 1995, pg. 82-83) This is a tradition that goes back many centuries as societies celebrated the harvest before winter was upon them. The ritual has changed over the centuries, yet the feasting and celebrating remains the same.
Fox News Bashing Pagans and Wiccans
The Problem with Being Pagan
The one problem with Pagan rituals is that many have to be celebrated in secret due to the controversy surrounding the religion. “Even at public pagan events, some only identify themselves by "magickal" names -- spelled with a "k" to distinguish it from sleight-of-hand illusions -- because followers have lost their jobs and their children because of discrimination, Marts said.” (Kay, 2006) With the anonymity associated with the religion it is also almost impossible for some Pagans to search out others who share the religion. “Chances to meet other Pagans and interact with the larger Pagan community in an ongoing basis are limited. That, in turn, makes it difficult for Pagans to create solidarity and encourage organized political action on behalf of Paganism as a religion.” (Barner-Barry, 2005, pg. 40) Yet with advancing technology, Pagans are able to connect more regularly via the internet and find covens when before one would have to search for years. “The problem of isolation for Pagan groups and individuals has been mitigated somewhat by the periodic Pagan festivals held in various locations throughout the United States, as well as Internet groups and a few widely read Pagan journals. This is, however, no substitute for ongoing face-to-face relationships or a generally accepted umbrella organization that can give a single voice to Paganism.” (Barner-Barry, 2005, pg. 40) This was how I found the coven that I observed and shared with them some of the irritation at not being able to practice rituals such as Mabon freely and without fear of repercussion.
Pagan religious activities are kept secret not only due to repercussion from the outside modern world, but also because the Pagan religion does not share its secrets with just anyone. As I stated before, one must be initiated into the religion. Because Pagans do not practice proselytism many who embrace Pagan religions do so through family or peer influence. This is especially true with teenage pagans. “The influence of peers is best documented for the case of traditional religious beliefs.” (Irwin, 2009, pg. 15) This also allows for the rituals to be passed down from family members and coven members and makes the individuals experience with any ritual new when participating with a Pagan from another coven or another solitary practitioner.
With rituals such as Mabon, not only do practicing Pagans renew their religious connection with the goddess and god, but also with those who practice with them. These rituals present Pagans with a chance to take a religion that has been primarily kept in a broom closet and bring it out to be celebrated with those like minded without fear of consequences or ridicule. For those who want to learn more about Pagan religions, the practicing of these rituals with the help of practicing Pagans help to educate those who are curious or misinformed. Hopefully in the future, Pagans will not have to hide the practice of rituals, such as the coven I observed, and be able to share without fear customs and traditions that span many centuries and teach those who are uninformed about the connection Pagan religions have to nature and the seasons.
Barner-Barry, C. (2005). Contemporary Paganism and the Law: Minority Religions in a Majoritarian America. London: Palgrave MacMillian. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10089186
Greenwood, S. (2000). Magic, Witchcraft, and the Otherworld: an Anthropology. New York: Oxford. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10006775
Hopman, E. E. (1995). A Druid's Herbal: For the Sacred Year. Rochester, VT: Destiny Books.
Irwin, H. J. (2009). The Psychology of Paranormal Belief: A Researcher's Handbook. Hertfordshire, GB: University of Hertfordshire Press. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10491599
Kay, L. F. (2006, Oct 01). At festival, blessings and lessons ; pagan pride day highlights nature-focused traditions, practices that predate christianity. The Sun, pp. 3-3B. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/406140443?accountid=32521
Moura, A. (2004). Grimoire for the Green Witch: A Complete Book of Shadows. St Paul, MN: Llewellyn Worldwide Ltd.
Roundtree, K. (2010). Crafting Contemporary Pagan Identities in a Catholic Society. Surrey, GB: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10356290