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Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday - Gandhi Jayanti - Father of the Nation

Updated on March 9, 2019
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Rajan is a botany and chemistry major. He has worked as a poultry breeder for 23 years, breeding layer and broiler parents.

Gandhi Jayanti (Mahatma Gandhi's birthday)

is on 2nd October 2019

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, more famously known as Mahatma Gandhi, was the leading light in India's freedom struggle against the British rule. The uniqueness of this freedom struggle was that it was essentially based on Ahimsa (Non Violence) & Satya (Truth).

Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2nd 1869, in Porbandar in the Gujarat state of India. His father was a Diwan, a high official, in the princely state of Porbandar.

He was assassinated on January 30th 1948, by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who thought Gandhi was sympathetic to the Muslims.

  • Mahatma Gandhi's birthday on October 2, is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday.
  • January 30, the day he was assassinated, is celebrated as Martyr's day in India.


The Formative Years

Three people had a lasting impression in molding the thoughts and character of the young Gandhi.

  • The 1st was his mother Putlibai who was a deeply religious woman. Though unlettered, her qualities of love, sacrifice and service for her children and others, deeply influenced the impressionable mind of the young Gandhi.
  • The other two were Shravana & Raja (King) Harishchandra, two very famous historical characters. From Shravana, he imbibed the quality of love & from King Harishchandra, he imbibed the value of truth.
    Gandhi himself admits this in his autobiography.

Early Life Of Gandhi

Gandhi was married at the tender age of 13 to Kasturbai, who incidentally was a year older to him. Child marriages were common in those days.

As a student, Gandhi was average as also shy and reticent in nature. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, died when he was only 15. His family wanted him to become a barrister so that he could secure a good job in the state.

After he passed out of high school, he was sent to London in 1888 to study law.

His mother had made him take a vow before he left for London that he would not touch meat, alcohol and women. Finding vegetarian food was difficult initially but he found it ultimately. He started living in a cheaper accommodation to save money and also walked to his college for the same reason.

It was in England that Gandhi read the Bhagvad Gita, the sacred Hindu scripture, for the first time. And the first time he read the Bible too.

The sacred texts of Hindus and Christians sowed the seeds for a life of renunciation and non violence.

After passing his law exams, Gandhi came back to India but since he was not a man of many words he could not adjust to the demands of his profession.

He was not able to find any fruitful employment and wanted to move away from this atmosphere. Sometime later an Indian businessman in South Africa offered Gandhi an offer to join him as a legal adviser in South Africa. He took up the offer as it paid him well.

So in April 1893, Gandhi left for South Africa. It was here that Gandhi was to find his real calling and the stay that was to last a year continued for over 20 years.

Gandhi in South Africa.
Gandhi in South Africa. | Source

Life In South Africa

South Africa then was inhabited mostly by non whites. The white people who though a minority, looked down upon the non whites as inferiors and abused them too . They referred to Indians as coolies.

Gandhi also experienced this racial discrimination personally. These events made a deep impression on Gandhi and he resolved firmly to fight this injustice by making the oppressed rise.

He founded the Natal Indian Congress emerging as its leader but only resorting to fighting injustice by peaceful demonstrations.

He also founded a weekly newspaper called Indian Opinion, in which he expressed his views on both political and social issues.

In between he founded the Indian Ambulance Corps that nursed the injured and wounded in the Boer war in 1899 and the Zulu war in 1906, earning admiration from the British.

When the government proposed an ordinance, called the Black Act, requiring all Indians to register and carry an ID at all times, Gandhi sought to fight this by holding the first satyagraha, a peaceful demonstration.

when the ordinance was passed, Gandhi called the Indians to desist from registering.

Finally in 1914, Gandhi managed to secure a victory and the satyagraha was stopped. He decided it was time to move to India.

So, on January 9, 1915 Gandhi arrived in India to a rousing welcome. By this time, he was referred to as Mahatma, for the exemplary service done by him in South Africa.

As he had been out of the country for over 20 years, he set up an ashram at Sabarmati, near Ahmedabad city. He stayed here for 12 years.

Today, the ashram is a national monument, signifying one of the freedom movements starting from here - The Dandi March in 1930.

The first satyagraha of non violent protest in India was lead by Mahatma Gandhi in 1918 - the Champaran & Kheda agitations. The satyagraha worked in favour of the farmers by way of relief in taxes, concessions for farmers in the form of not being forced to sell their crops for a price determined by the British landlords and also allowing them to grow the crops of their choice.

In 1919 Gandhi, by solidly backing the khilafat movement - a protest by the Muslims against the falling standards of the Caliph, their religious leader - got a lot of Muslim support and backing and in 1920, Mahatma Gandhi became the leader of the Congress Party.

With the Mahatma's mass appeal growing and armed now with the weapons of truth and non violent, peaceful resistance, Gandhi launched the non cooperation movement.

He called upon the people to boycott foreign goods, advised them to wear khadi (homespun cloth), boycott all things British.

His appeal was widely acclaimed and successful but the movement had to be withdrawn in 1922, because of violent clashes in the town of Chauri Chaura.

The famous Charkha (spinning wheel) was invented by Gandhi for the sole purpose that people could make khadi at home.

Staying low & away from active politics for most part of the 1920s, Mahatma Gandhi worked for the eradication of the evils of untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty.

The salt march was launched because of a tax being levied on salt. Organising a salt march to Dandi, a distance of 241 miles by foot, he proceeded to make salt himself. With the support of thousands, this was a major victory for him and the people of India.

When the round table conference talks in London failed, Gandhi launched the Quit India movement in 1942.

This was a time of a lot of turmoil and hardships. The leaders were arrested and jailed indefinitely.There ensued a lot of violence.

Partition And Independence

Though Mahatma Gandhi was opposed to the partition of India, the Muslim league party headed by Jinnah feared that muslim rights will be curbed in a country that had a majority Hindu population. Inspite of Gandhi's assurances he demanded a separate state of Pakistan for the Muslims.

During the partition process, severe communal violence broke out between the Hindus & Muslims. It is believed more than 5,00,000 people died in the communal frenzy during this time.

Rajghat - the memorial erected in memory of Mahatma Gandhi. It was at this place that the Mahatma was cremated.
Rajghat - the memorial erected in memory of Mahatma Gandhi. It was at this place that the Mahatma was cremated. | Source

Mahatma Gandhi's Assassination

On 30 th January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation was shot at while going to address a prayer meeting, by a Hindu nationalist, Nathuram Godse. Gandhi's last words were Hey Ram! meaning O God!

Gandhi's death was mourned by the entire nation. A memorial was erected in his memory at Rajghat, the place where he was assassinated.

The honorific title of father of the nation was not conferred on Mahatma Gandhi by the Indian government.
According to Wikipedia, Subhas Chandra Bose, one of India's prominent nationalist leaders, used this term to refer to Gandhi during a radio broadcast from Singapore, in 1944. This was later recognised by the Government of India.

After Gandhi's assassination, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in a radio address announced that the father of the nation is no more.

Mahatma Gandhi And Non Violence

Mahatma Gandhi was an apostle of peace. The only weapon he used, if you can call it so, was Ahimsa or non violence. In fact he considered truth as being above nonviolence.

He said"when there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advice violence".

Mahatma Gandhi On Life

Some selected sayings of Mahatma Gandhi on life are :

  • Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.
  • My life is my message.
  • Where there is love there is life.
  • To my mind, the life of a lamb is no less precious than that of a human being.
  • Life becomes livable only to the extent that death is treated as a friend, never as an enemy.
  • Nobody can hurt me without my permission.

Mahatma Gandhi On Education

Here are some thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi on education :

  • Literacy in itself is no education.
  • By education I mean drawing out the best in the child and man - body, mind and spirit.
  • Experience gained in 2 schools under my care has taught me that punishment does not purify, if anything, it hardens children.
  • An education which does not teach us to discriminate between good and bad, to assimilate the one and eschew the other, is a misnomer.
  • I believe that religious education must be the sole concern of religious associations.
  • In a democratic scheme, money invested in the promotion of learning gives a ten fold return to the people even as a seed sown in good soil returns a luxuriant crop.

Mahatma Gandhi's Speech

© 2012 Rajan Singh Jolly


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    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      4 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      mahalakshmi thank you.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Thanks, Mahavir.

    • jainismus profile image

      Mahaveer Sanglikar 

      6 years ago from Pune, India

      Tribute to this great man..

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      @Christy-the world needs people like Gandhi today. Thanks for stopping by.

      @Margaret-thanks for sharing your views. I appreciate your votes and sharing of the hub.

      @che-de-jour-Mahatma Gandhi inspired a lot of world leaders like Martin Luther King, James Lawson, Nelson Mandela and Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan to name a few. Non violence is a tough road to walk these days, though it has never been easy.

      @Bill-glad you appreciate the genuineness of the great man. He got independence for India almost singlehandedly. Thanks for sharing.

      @Chitrangada- thank you.

    • ChitrangadaSharan profile image

      Chitrangada Sharan 

      6 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Thanks for writing this tribute on Mahatma Gandhi!

      Through this hub, many people across the world will be able to know about the life and struggle of this great Patriot, for India' s freedom.

      Wonderfully done! Thanks!

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 

      6 years ago from Massachusetts

      What a wonderful hub rajan. Mahatma Gandi was an amazing man and we can all learn some valuable lessons from him. Thanks so much for the history lesson. Shared and voted up.

    • chef-de-jour profile image

      Andrew Spacey 

      6 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

      Thank you, I enjoyed reading about Mahatma Gandhi. A humble yet deeply passionate man inside. Let's hope his legacy of non violence can be an inspiration to others seeking justice. It's a difficult road to take.

    • mperrottet profile image

      Margaret Perrottet 

      6 years ago from San Antonio, FL

      I really enjoyed reading about Gandhi, as he is one of my heroes. He is a role model for all of us on how we should live, and is one of the great souls to have graced us with his presence. Great hub, voted up, useful, interesting and sharing.

    • ChristyWrites profile image

      Christy Birmingham 

      6 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      I like that peace and truth are put above violence... Thank-you for sharing the live of an incredible man!

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Thank you, IslandBites.

    • IslandBites profile image


      6 years ago from Puerto Rico

      Excellent hub! Very informative.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      KenWu-thanks for pointing out the typo. I very much appreciate the keen read and I'm glad you like the video as well. Many thanks and have a wonderful day!

    • KenWu profile image


      6 years ago from Malaysia

      Hi Rajan,

      Great hub on Mahatma Gandhi. Heard about this great man but never really go through his life history until now. But I spotted an error in your article. On the third paragraph of the Early Life of Gandhi:

      After he passed out of high school, he was sent to London in 1988 to study law. (I believe is 1888, not 1988, a typo you have there).



      PS - BTW, the Youtube video (Gandhi's Speech) is profound.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Indian Chef, you are right. Appreciate the visit and sharing.

    • Indian Chef profile image

      Indian Chef 

      6 years ago from New Delhi India

      Rajan this is a very good tribute to one of the greatest man on earth ever. He was not only a great leader of the masses and also had courage to take on British single handedly and never use any kind of force. Voting it up, awesome and interesting. Sharing it here and on twitter.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Sheri, this quote is so true! It's our thoughts translated into action that bring about change. I'm glad you are inspired by this great man.

      Thanks for stopping by.

    • Sheri Faye profile image

      Sheri Dusseault 

      6 years ago from Chemainus. BC, Canada

      Gandhi was (is) one of the true heroes in history. I hope somehow he know the impact he has had on the entire world. I have a little magnet on my fridge that quotes him "Be the change you want to see in the world". Thanks for this. Well done. Now I am inspired to live a little better today.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.


      Gandhi was influenced the most by the Bhagvad Gita and the Bible. These two scriptures made a deep impression on Gandhi resulting in his later resolve to work for the poor and downtrodden as well as non violence which became his hall mark weapon for fighting for independence.

      I'm glad you appreciate this fact. Thanks for reading and sharing.

    • sweetie1 profile image


      6 years ago from India


      If there was any selfless man , it was Mr. MKGandhi. He was from real rich family of Gujrat and could have had a life full of wealth and enjoyment , yet he choose to serve the poorest of poor of not only India but also South Africa. He always stood for his believes and even though he never used force but was much more powerful than the most powerful country of world that time. No amount of praise for him are more. Voted up and sharing.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Hi Peggy, in these turbulent times when there is so much violence we need more men like Mahatma Gandhi for sure. Many thanks for reading, appreciating and sharing the hub.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      7 years ago from Houston, Texas

      I think that anyone who knows anything about history would associate Mahatma Gandhi with the concept of peaceful protests against wrongs. He is well known for that. I learned so much more about him by reading your hub and truly enjoyed it. Many up votes and sharing. Hope that there will be many more people emulating his non-violent vision and efforts in the future. The world would be a better place.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Thank you meera.

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      very very very


    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      @ rahul - very true. Truly noble souls like Mahatma Gandhi come one in centuries. Thanks for reading and commenting. Nice to see you.

      @ bhargvi - thanks.

      @ Vinaya - Gandhi never yearned for praise. He is indeed a role model for many modern day politicians. Thanks for reading.

      @ geetbhim - Yes, Gandhiji practised what he preached. This is the essential difference between our current leaders as well as Bapu.

      Thanks for appreciating the hub, Sangeeta.

    • geetbhim profile image

      sangeeta verma 

      7 years ago from Ludhiana India

      Hi Rajan!

      It's really good hub lot of hard work you have put on it,being an Indian we all love Bapu. I got this information from some book that once a lady came to meet Bapu ji and she asked him to scolde his son because he eats a lot of sweets and sugar than Gandhi ji told the lady to come after 7 days. After 7 days lady came to see Gandhi ji Than Gandhi Ji called her son and told him not to eat so many sweets. Now that lady asked Gandhi ji why he told this today not 7 days back. Gandhi ji replied how can I say that it will be a lie when even I like to eat sweet. I called you after 7 days so that I can first control myself then only I can stop others. This shows what ever he says he follows in his day today life also.

      His saying Do or Die is one of my favorite.

    • Vinaya Ghimire profile image

      Vinaya Ghimire 

      7 years ago from Nepal

      Many of Gandhi's children were awarded Nobel Peace prize but, Nobel Committee missed Gandhi. Gandhi's Satyagraha and his message of Ahimsa still inspires politicians as well as common people in Nepal.

      Rajan,thanks for publishing this great article.

    • bhargvi sharma profile image

      Bhargvi Sharma 

      7 years ago from jammu ( India)

      Awesome informative hub... Voted up!!! :)

    • rahul0324 profile image

      Jessee R 

      7 years ago from Gurgaon, India

      Awesome hub Rajan Sir

      The most remarkable aspect of a legend id that it starts from scratches and without it knowing... it spreads to millions

      When Gandhi came to India... and realized his purpose... he was alone.... when he started for Dandi... he was alone... but when he reached there.. he was leading thousands

      Some people become great... some become immortal.... A few people... become legends

      MK Gandhi is one for sure.... The Mahatma... the great soul ...

      "You must be the change you wish to see in the world. "


    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      @ Ishwaryaa - thanks for all the compliments, votes and sharing. Mahatma Gandhi truly inspires many people even today.

      Thanks for being a constant support. Always a pleasure to see you.

      @ Mycee - Thanks for all the kind words. Mahatma Gandhi was truly a rare human being, born once in centuries. Thanks for always being a support and it's always great to see you.

      @ shampa - thanks for including my link in your hub. I'll check out your hub and do so. It would be great linking to yours.

      Glad you liked it. Thanks for reading/sharing.

    • shampa sadhya profile image

      Shampa Sadhya 

      7 years ago from NEW DELHI, INDIA

      Voted up and useful!

      Shared too and linked your hub with one of my hub on Gandhiji based upon opinions of other personalities about our Father of the Nation.

      Definitely liked your hub.

    • unknown spy profile image

      Life Under Construction 

      7 years ago from Neverland

      One amazing and truly inspiring person Mahatma Gandhi. I salute you. Nice topic Rajan

    • ishwaryaa22 profile image

      Ishwaryaa Dhandapani 

      7 years ago from Chennai, India

      India attained its eternal freedom & ever-lasting glory thanks to Mahatma Gandhi! He undoubtedly deserved the title 'Father of the nation'. I have read Amar Chitra Katha comic that chronicled the life of Gandhi. Through your engaging & well-written hub, I gained more knowledge! A well-presented hub!

      Thanks for SHARING. Useful, Awesome & Interesting. Voted up & Socially Shared

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      I entirely agree, tillsontitan. He was a saint. I'm glad you stopped by. Thanks for appreciating and voting.

    • tillsontitan profile image

      Mary Craig 

      7 years ago from New York

      An amazing human being, totally selfless and embodying all that we fail at. Gandhi would be called a saint if he was Catholic...I still think he was a saint in his love for mankind.

      Thank you for all of this information and the great pics!

      Voted up, useful, awesome, and interesting.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Aurelio,, Absolutely! Mahatma Gandhi is an inspiration for non violent form of protest to many world leaders. Thanks for coming by and appreciate the votes.

    • alocsin profile image

      Aurelio Locsin 

      7 years ago from Orange County, CA

      Not just the father of India, but also an inspiration for non-violent protest throughout the world. I did not know he invented the charka. Voting this Up and Interesting.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      @ coffeegginmyrice - Thank you Tess. I appreciate your sparing time to read, appreciate and comment. Thank you.

      Have a good day.

      @ Deborah - Thank you for visiting and leaving your kind comments. Appreciate the sharing. Have a nice day.

    • Deborah Brooks profile image

      Deborah Brooks Langford 

      7 years ago from Brownsville,TX

      Rajan.. what a awesome Hub.. Gandhi was a great man.. He stood for what he believed.. and what a great example just like everyone has mentioned.. Love this hub

      voted up and



    • coffeegginmyrice profile image

      Marites Mabugat-Simbajon 

      7 years ago from Toronto, Ontario

      Mahatma Gandhi is one of the very admirable man on Earth. I say 'is' not 'was' for until now he is still. This hub is great Rajan on how you put up a story of Ghandi's life complete with photos! I would love to bookmark this hub. Keep up the good work, Rajan! Take care ~Tess

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Thanks for reading and appreciating the write up on this amazing human being whose example is still being followed by so many around the world even today. I'm glad you liked it.

      Thanks for visiting.

    • Trinity M profile image

      Trinity M 

      7 years ago

      Wonderful hub! Gandhi was an incredible man and an example we should all strive to follow. I love this hub Rajan, you have done a great job of presenting this incredible man. Voted up and awesome!

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      @ Rich - The Mahatma has been a source of inspiration for many modern day leaders like Nelson Mandela, Barack Obama, Martin Luther King, John Lennon and so many other leaders and extraordinary personalities.

      I'm glad you like this tribute to him. Thanks for reading and commenting.

      @ Ruchira - Thanks for the visit and appreciation. Appreciate the votes and sharing.

    • Ruchira profile image


      7 years ago from United States

      Great accolade to the father of our nation.

      Many votes, Rajan and sharing it across

    • rcrumple profile image


      7 years ago from Kentucky

      Rajan -

      Another extremely interesting character sturdy of a magnificent individual. I've read much about him in the past and your article does much justice to the man and his beliefs. Great Job!

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      @ Justsilvie - Mahatma Gandhi was a simple unassuming soul. He never clamoured for recognition. Glad you admire this gentleman. This is a small tribute to the great man on his coming birthday on October 2.

      Thanks for reading, commenting and sharing.

      @ healthylife - So glad to read you are amongst the millions of Gandhi admirers. Gandhi initially was tongue tied being of a shy nature. But his inner strength shone and made him vociferous but in a non violent way when he saw injustice being meted out to the oppressed.

      Thanks for stopping by, leaving comments and sharing the hub.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Hi Daisy,

      Mahatma Gandhi while in Mumbai stayed at Mani Bhavan, a friend of Gandhi. glad you visited this place. It is a historical monument & is being maintained as a memorial.

      I'm glad you like the hub. Thank you. So nice to see you.

      Have a great day.

    • healthylife2 profile image

      Healthy Life 

      7 years ago from Connecticut, USA

      Amazing job as always providing a complete discussion of Gandhi. I've always admired Gandhi and his concept of peaceful protest. It's so interesting that Gandhi was too nervous to do the cross exam when he first became an attorney and then went on to become one of the greatest leaders of all time when he discovered something that he was passionate about. Voted up and sharing this one!

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Very well done hub. Mahatma Gandhi is and has been for a long time one of the people I admire very much in this world and I enjoy learning more about him. Voted up and sharing.

    • Daisy Mariposa profile image

      Daisy Mariposa 

      7 years ago from Orange County (Southern California)


      This is a beautiful Hub, Rajan. It's obvious you put quite a bit of work into researching and writing it.

      I was honored to have visited Gandhi's Mumbai living quarters when I was in India several years ago.

    • rajan jolly profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Thanks a bunch Carol, for reading and appreciating. Yes, it did take a lot of time with all those pictures and research. Thanks once again.

    • carol7777 profile image

      carol stanley 

      7 years ago from Arizona

      I found this most interesting and enlightening and learned many new things. You wrote an excellent description and got to the heart of Gandhi. How interesting to me the way people lived and thought in the past--any country or religion. We live by our beliefs and interpretations of the laws of life. You have wonderful photos here and I know this took a while to write. Thanks for sharing all this information..great as always. Voted UP...++++


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    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)