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Morocco (Berber: ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Murakuč 'Land of God', in Arabic: المغرب al-Maghrib, 'the land of the West' or 'where the sun sets'), officially called the Kingdom of Morocco (Berber: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Tageldit-n-Murakuč; Arabic: المملكة المغربية al-Mamlaka al-Maġribiyya), also known as United Empire or Alauí- Sherifian is a sovereign country in the Maghreb, North Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
It is separated from Europe by the Strait of Gibraltar. It borders Algeria to the east (the border with Algeria has been closed since 1994) by the South Western Sahara (disputed territory) and northern Spain, its main trading partner that shares both sea and land borders (Ceuta, Melilla and the Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera). There are other Spanish enclaves on the Mediterranean coast (Penon de Alhucemas and Chafarinas Islands). Morocco is attributed to its territory the territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony occupied by Morocco's population in 1975, after the Madrid Accords and subsequent waiver of rights and obligations Spanish although at present the Organization of the United Nations does not recognize any rights over the territory, still considering non-autonomous territory of Spanish sovereignty decolonize-.n. 1
It is the only African country that currently is not a member of the African Union (AU). In 1984 the Assembly of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), predecessor of the AU instance and which Morocco was a founding member, accepted as a member of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) .7 In response, Morocco withdrew from the organization. He is a member of the Arab League, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Francophonie, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Union for the Mediterranean, the European Broadcasting Union, the Group of 77 and the North-South Centre. It is also a major non-NATO ally of the United States.
Prehistory and antiquity
The present territory of Morocco has been inhabited since Neolithic times, at least since 8000. C., attested by signs of the Capsian culture, at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. Many theorists believe the Berber language appeared at the same time as agriculture, and was adopted by the existing population and the immigrants that brought it. Latest analysis confirms that various populations have contributed genetically in the current population, including, in addition to the main ethnic groups-that say, Berbers and Arabs Phoenicians, Sephardic Jews and sub-Saharan Africans. In the classical period, Morocco was known as Mauretania, not to be confused with the modern country of Mauritania.
North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn Fez in the Mediterranean world by Phoenician trading colonies and settlements in the classical period. The arrival of Phoenicians heralded a long engagement in the wider Mediterranean, as this strategic region formed part of the Roman Empire, known as Mauritania Tingitana. In the V century AD, when falling Roman Empire, the region fell under the dominion of Vandals, Visigoths and later under Byzantine Greeks in rapid succession. However, during this time, the high mountains territories remained under the control of Berber inhabitants.
First Islamic times
Aït Benhaddou, a settlement built by the Berbers from the fourteenth century.
Morocco was modernized in the late seventh century, with the advent of Islam, which resulted in the conversion of many Berbers and the formation of states as the Emirate of Nekor in the Rif current. Uqba ibn Nafi, conqueror of North Africa in the seventh century, reached the Atlantic coast on the beaches of Massa, was introduced in the ocean with his horse and put Allah to witness that there were no more lands to conquer. The country soon lost control of the distant Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad under the power of Idris I, founder of the idrisíes in the year 789. Morocco became the center of learning and greater regional power.
The country reached its greatest power when a series of Berber dynasties replaced Arab idrisíes. First the Almoravids, the Almohads after, who came to Morocco after ruling much of northwest Africa and large areas of the Iberian Peninsula or al-Andalus. Small states in the region, as Barghawata and Banu Isam, were conquered. The empire collapsed because of a long period of civil wars.
The first European interventions
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Portugal began an expansionist policy in Africa, in Morocco aimed to control the coast and piracy activities. The first major initiative was the taking of Ceuta (1415), which would no longer Maghreb hands; this was followed by Arcila and Tangiers (1471), Mogador (1506), Safi (1508) and Mazagan (1513). Despite the powerful fortifications erected soon squares south had to be progressively abandoned Moroccan face constant attacks.
Meanwhile, Spanish troops under the command of Pedro de Estopiñán conquered the city of Melilla in 1497, which was attached to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, and from 1556, the Spanish crown. Since 1580, when Philip II was crowned king of Portugal, the Portuguese possessions became part of the Spanish empire. In 1640 Portugal regained its independence, but Ceuta remained under Spanish control, a situation that still stands.
Tangier was ceded to England by the Portuguese in 1661, as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, when the princess married King Charles II. The English, in front of the Moroccan continuous pressure, decided to abandon the February 6, 1684.
The Alawites 1666-1912
View of Tangier in 1875.
The Alawite dynasty, which until then controlled the region of Tafilalet, succeeded in unifying his power in 1666 at the time a country divided, and have since been ruling Morocco house. Alawites succeeded in stabilizing their position, facing the pressure of Spaniards and Ottomans, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, continued to maintain their wealth. In 1684 Tangier annexed to its territory.
Morocco was one of the first countries to recognize the United States as an independent nation in 1777. The Treaty of Friendship Moroccan-American is considered the oldest treaty is not broken in the United States. Signed by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, he has been in continuous effect since 1783. The US consulate in Tangier is the first property that the US government has abroad. The building now serves as a museum.
French and Spanish protectorates
Map of the French and Spanish protectorates in Morocco (1925-1975).
As industrializing Europe, North Africa, with its wealth and its strategic interest, it was becoming an increasingly attractive target for the colonial powers. France showed a strong interest in Morocco since 1830. In 1860, a dispute over the Spanish enclave Ceuta led Spain to declare war. Victorious Spain won a new location and expansion of the settlement of Ceuta. In 1884, Spain established a protectorate in coastal areas of Morocco.
In 1904 France and Spain established zones of influence in the country. The recognition by the UK of the French sphere of influence in Morocco provoked a strong reaction of the German Empire; the crisis of June 1905 was resolved at the Algeciras Conference, held in Spain in 1906, where he was formally a "special position" and entrusted French policy of Morocco to France and Spain together. A second Moroccan crisis provoked by Berlin, increased tensions between European powers
The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the same treaty, from 27 November of that year, the Northern Territory (around the cities of Ceuta and Melilla) and south (border with the Spanish Sahara) became the Spanish protectorate in Morocco. France and Spain controlled the Treasury, army and foreign policy of Morocco in their respective protectorates. In theory they do not pose colonial occupation, they are regulated by treaties and Morocco is an independent State protected by France and Spain but under the sovereignty of the Sultan. In practice Morocco became a colony of France and Spain, especially since 1930. The city of Tangier, near the Strait of Gibraltar, obtains character of international city status by 1923.
Loading Igan river Alcantara Regiment, box Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau portraying the Annual Disaster happened in 1921, during the War of the Rif (1911-1927).
A part of the Moroccan population opposed the European colonial occupation. The French had to fight against the troops of Al Hiba between 1912 and 1919 in Marrakech. Rif revolted against the Spanish protectorate in Morocco in command of Abd el-Krim and proclaimed Republic of the Rif, occupying the northern part of present-day Morocco between 1921 and 1927, which would become the ancient Kingdom of Nekor. This republic did not recognize the Sultan of Morocco and declared full independence. The Franco-Spanish Coalition managed to defeat the Republic of Rif Al Hoceima after the landing and use of chemical weapons against the population during the War of the Rif.
In the French protectorate there was a massive influx of French settlers (became 500,000 in 1950) which grew the best land. The settlers purchased the land, totaling 1,100,000 hectares, in several ways: appropriating communal land (melk) , and forcing the Moroccan smallholder farmers to sell their land. On the other hand the French government built roads, ports, railways, telephone networks, aerial navigation. Mines iron, copper, manganese, lead, zinc and, especially, phosphates and Yusufía Khouribga also exploded. French colonization caused the ruin of the native crafts, abrupt and abusive working population displacements and little or no investment in housing and education are concerned. Many Moroccan soldiers (goumieres) who served in the French army collaborated with European and US troops in the First and Second World Wars. The sultans of Morocco at this time were Muley Yusuf (1912-1927) and Mohammed V (1927-1961).
Resistance to the protectorate
Nationalist political parties, which were under French protectorate, based their ideals for a future Moroccan independence in the Atlantic Charter during WWII (a statement from the United States and the United Kingdom that, among other things, the right to people to choose the form of government under which they wanted to live). The manifesto of the Istiqlal Party in 1944 was one of the earliest public demands for independence. Subsequently, the party led by Allal al-Fassi, would the leadership of the national movement.
In the Fifties the Moroccan nationalism had spread Casablanca, Rabat, Fez, Tangier and Tetouan and is supported by the urban bourgeoisie and later also by farmers. The Istiqlal party wins the support of Mohammed V and the Arab League in 1950. That year, Mohammed V requests independence. In 1952 the case of Morocco is in the UN.
The August 23, 1953 France sent into exile in Madagascar Mohammed V. The Sultan was replaced by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa, and his reign was perceived as illegitimate, spreading an active opposition to the French protectorate all over the country and damaging the image Outside of France, you do not get support. The Arab revolt against the French. During the summer of 1955 a wave of terrorist attacks attacks French targets in Morocco, which is answered with police repression. The most notable incident occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. Operations carried out by the new "Armée de Libération" (Liberation Army) took place on 1 October 1955. The "Armée de Libération" was created by the "Committee of Libération du Maghreb Arab" (Maghreb Liberation Committee Arabic) in Cairo (Egypt) to constitute a resistance movement against occupation by the FNL in Algeria. His goal was the return of King Mohammed V and the liberation of Algeria and Tunisia. During the autumn of 1955 Aarafa abdication and France he allowed the return of Mohammed V. Negotiations for Moroccan independence began the following year.
All these events helped increase the degree of solidarity between the people and the king newcomer. For this reason, the revolution of Morocco, known as "The Revolution of the King and his people" is held every August 20.
Hassan II of Morocco, King from 1961-1999.
Morocco won its policy of France and Spain independence on March 2, 1956; and on April 7 of the same year France officially relinquished its protectorate in Morocco. Agreements with Spain in 1956 and 1958, Morocco regained territories previously controlled by that country. Morocco is a member of the UN since 12 November 1956. The international city of Tangier was reintegrated through the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956. In 1957 undertook the Ifni War to conquer other Spanish colonial territories ceded by the Treaty of Wad-Ras, 1860, by Sultan Mohammed IV. In 1958 Morocco Spain recovers from the province of Cabo Juby. Hassan II was proclaimed King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. Morocco was established as a constitutional monarchy and divine right simultaneously. The monarchy is the national benchmark.
During the last years of Mohammed V a code of civil liberties (1958) was created, there were local elections (1960), a government of national coalition (1960) was formed, a popular bank whose users are the shareholders and financing SMEs created and housing (1960). The Istiqlal underwent a split in 1959 that the National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP) was born.
In 1963 he broke a brief border war between Morocco and Algeria after the rejection of Algerian President Ben Bella to the Moroccan claims over territories under the sovereignty of the Sultan of Morocco that had been built by the French colonial regime in its then colony, Algeria (Bechar Tindouf in 1903 and 1934). The conflict, triggered by Morocco, was named Sand War.
During the sixties the land belonging to the European settlers came to the Moroccan landowners. School, vocational training and college are also encouraged. On December 7, 1962 the Constitution was adopted, but since 1962 there was a standoff between the king and the political parties. In the background Hassan II (1961-1999) He never liked neither the parliament nor democracy. In 1963 Istiqlal ministers resigned. Months later there were elections in which Istiqlal wins on the field and the UNFP in Casablanca, Rabat and Agadir. From then until 1996 the Istiqlal and the UNFP have been in opposition. Between 1962 and 1990 the National Directorate of Security and the police repress the population, while corruption is rampant in both institutions. Between 1965 and 1970, because of a popular rebellion in Casablanca, Hassan II suspended the constitution and declared a state of emergency. In 1970 a new constitution tailored to the king, to the Istiqlal and the UNFP opposed approved. A third constitution was approved in 1972, according to which the administration elects a third of the deputies. Hassan suffered between 1971 and 1973 three assassination attempts by the army.
The Moroccan government was marked by a great political unrest, and his ruthless response to opposition movements called Years of Lead won. The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south, returned to be part of the new Morocco in 1969.
Moroccan wall in Western Sahara. In yellow, the territory occupied by the Polisario Front.
Morocco invaded Western Sahara militarily in November 1975 against the wishes of the Sahrawis, who warred against Morocco between 1976 and 1986, and the UN resolutions, which remain in the territory including the list of territories autonomous and therefore subject to decolonization. Despite occupying most of the territory, the final resolution of the status of these territories remains unresolved. The referendum promised in 1981 has not yet been concluded. However, while Spain could not deliver the Saharawi sovereignty to another nation, it is considered, under international law, the UN and officially, that is still under Spanish administration and sovereignty. However facto administrator is Morocco, although Spain remains the colonial power legally.
There were legislative elections in 1979 and 1984. In 1981 there were riots in Casablanca by rising prices. The balance threw several hundred dead. [Citation needed] In January 1984 there were bread riots in Nador and Tetouan ended with a hundred dead. Morocco was in debt, so in 1983 the WB-IMF imposed Structural Adjustment Plan. This involved the privatization of phosphates, telephony and the textile industry and the reduction of customs duties from 60% to 45%.
Between 1985 and 1990 the situation became critical and problematic. Unemployment rose, the dirham fell, there was capital flight and subsidies for staples were cut. To pay the debt the IMF and World Bank impose cuts in health and education and an end to the recruitment of officials. In those years there were strikes and demonstrations. He proceeded to political reform from above in 1991. In 1993 there were elections in which there was fraud. Amnesty for political prisoners were held in 1994 and 1996. In 1995 the school was recognized in Berber. The September 13, 1996 the Constitution was amended: the entire parliament began to be chosen by universal suffrage and a House of Councillors (sort of senate) whose members are elected by the communities, municipalities, regions, unions and professional associations are created . In 1997 all the elections were held; legislative threw a great political divide: the largest party won 13.8% of the vote.
Morocco got the status of major non-NATO ally in June 2004 and signed a free trade agreement with the United States and the European Union (2000).
Hassan II died in 1999, his eldest son Mohammed VI happens to the throne and promises to make profound democratic changes. That same year he reformed the legal code of women and in 2004 the family code: the minimum age is raised for marriage from 15 to 18, is abolished polygamy, custody of the father or brother of the adult woman not married, and women can choose husband and file for divorce on equal footing with men in regard to child custody.
Mohamed VI of Morocco, head of state since 1999.
In the 2002 elections, the Justice and Development Party (PJD), an Islamist character, advanced significantly.
In May 2003, the country's largest city, Casablanca suffered a terrorist attack. The attack occurred in Western and Jewish-related places, and there was the death of 33 people and more than 100 injured, mostly Moroccans. The attack caused a regression of civil liberties: the remand was extended, the police can enter private homes without warrants, intercept mail, phone calls and checking accounts. In the municipal elections of September 2003, the PJD up to second place.
Islam (98.3%, Sunni, Islam reached the territory of present Morocco in 682). Christian minorities (0.6%, unrelated to Christianity were implanted in the territory in Roman times ), Jewish (1%; the Jews are present in the territory of present Morocco since Roman times) and other religions (1.8% in 2000).
The king is the highest Islamic religious authority, as commander of all believers.
Morocco's official languages are:
Nationally: classical Arabic and Berber.
Non-official languages of Morocco are:
Moroccan Arabic, all the varieties of Arabic dialect spoken in Morocco.
Berber languages (Tarifit, Tamazight and Tachelhit) used daily in the mountainous regions of Morocco.
French is the language of commerce; higher education is taught in French.
The Spanish: Regions Rif, Yebala and Tarfaya because in the past formed the Spanish protectorate in Morocco.
In Western Sahara, administered by Morocco: the Spanish and the traditional Arab area (Hassaniya), are widely used and are official for the SADR.
Classical Arabic is the language of the law although French law and sometimes also translated into Spanish.
The language spoken by the majority population is Moroccan Arabic, gradually influenced by the call cultured language. De facto there is diglosia and even triglosia motivated because the vast majority of the population understands and speaks French. The king of Morocco when he wants that a speech arrives everyone is forced to use for the Arab world, classical Arabic, and for the rest of the world, the French.
The berberófonas areas in three dialects of Berber languages (Tarifit, Tamazight and Tachelhit) use their language daily.
In the cities of Tetouan and Nador the knowledge and use of Spanish is high; Also in the Saharan population of the former Spanish Sahara; in most of the population of Larache, Tangiers, Lavenders and Sidi Ifni it is usual. There are Spanish-speaking groups in cities like Rabat, Agadir, Kenitra, Casablanca, Cup, Fez, Marrakech, Meknes and Oujda. Currently, there are six centers of the Cervantes Institute, one of the largest concentrations in one country of the institution responsible for the dissemination of the Spanish language in the world. The Spanish-speaking population in Morocco ascends to about 360,000 people in 2006.
The Moroccan media (newspapers, radio, television) are available in Arabic, French and Spanish. In much of the north of the country can tune smoothly the radio and Spanish television channels.
Currently, living in the age of globalization is almost impossible we run into a country where there is multilingualism, maybe speakers are not bilingual, but you can not say that there is a country on the face of the Earth where a single language is spoken and Morocco is no exception. For its endless alleys, walk dweller can enrich your ears with languages such as Arabic, Berber, Spanish (in the north) and French (mostly in the south) and sometimes they can all come from a single speaker . Now, they are given the same value to all of them? To answer this question we must delve into the country's language policies. To understand the current situation of language policies in Morocco must go back in time to the twentieth century because these, in some way, were the result of colonization. After independence, the government launched a policy of Arabization which consisted of a process whose aim was to claim back to the Arabic language as a means of linguistic, religious and cultural identity. In the 1962 Constitution, the State establishes Arabic as official language. To carry out this process, the Government implements in various fields, namely education system, public life and media, these three areas become the strength to carry out this process. This policy does not take into account the multicultural character of the country. The Moroccan government intended to follow the French model, and therefore its main objective was monolingualism as a form of identity. Arabic as a linguistic, religious and cultural identity of the country and adopted; language belonging to it all should know, highlighting is above the Amazigh, French and Spanish. This process is achieved in all areas except in the institutional, where French predominates until today. In the field of education this process is implemented more slowly; begins in primary education first, then move on to secondary education, and later and with less success to university education. In 1988 the State Arabised all levels of primary, secondary and university education of some faculties of arts education. Both Berber languages like Spanish (always a lesser extent) pass into the background as the government believes may interfere with the process of linguistic, cultural and religious unification. Because of the continuous demands of the Berber people, in 2001 the King Mohamed VI of Morocco gave a speech in which he recognizes the linguistic diversity of Morocco and identity plurality in the country: A travers cet acte, this reception, tout d 'abord, ensemble exprimer, notre reconnaissance de l'histoire de notre intégralité commune culturelle et de notre identité nationale et bâtie autour d'multiple variés dumbbells. The pluralité qui ont des affluents forgé façonné notre histoire et notre identité is inseparable from l'unité de notre Nation regroupée autour de ses valeurs sacrées. [...] L'Amazigh constitue a major élément of culture nationale, et un patrimoine culturel manifestée dont la présence est dans toutes les expressions de l'histoire et de la marocaine civilization, nous accordons particulière à toute une sollicitude promotion dans sa le cadre de la mise en oeuvre de projet de société démocratique et notre modernist, south fondée the consolidation of the valorisation of the personnalité marocaine et de ses symboles linguistiques, culturels et civilisationnels. After the speech an organization called Amazigh Cultural Movement (MCA) is created which aimed to defend the rights of the Berber people, and a new model is created which aimed to bring Amazigh to public education. This results in a change in the language policy of Morocco. He spends monolingualism by which since independence has been working to open the languages giving right to the Berber language. In the constitution of 2011, the Amazigh language becomes the country's official language along with Arabic. So what about foreign languages?
In several surveys that have been made to the inhabitants of the Maghreb, it has reflected their interest to learn these. Consider some of the results of these surveys: According to a study by R. Loulidi Mortada, 23 for young Moroccans is important bilingüismo.El 94.6% of respondents believed that it is important to be able to speak more languages, including French , English or Spanish; while only 2.5% disagreed. 96.2% wanted their children in the future, speak languages such as French or Spanish. Now, why is this so? The northern area of Morocco was under Spanish protectorate and the south under French. It is essential to take this into account to understand the current situation in Morocco. Indeed, the actual presence of the Spanish language, especially in the north, is important, because in addition to the institutions that have among other objectives the promotion of Spanish as the Cervantes Institute, there are other ways to play likewise a key role in the Spanish cultural influence in the area, which are the media. In the north TVE, Antena 3, Tele 5, Canal Sur and Canal + are captured along with the Moroccan television which broadcasts an information in español.24 As the Spanish one of the languages most spread internationally there are speakers who prefer their use in some areas. In addition, the ability to speak and write the language can facilitate access to other services and giving priority mainly in the professional fields. Hence the use of Spanish is allowed in all competitions and examinations organized by the State for access to any position in the public service for more than seven years ago. A curious fact is that according to the results of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Embassy of Spain in Morocco, this country is where the Spanish government invests more for the spread of Castilian throughout the mundo.25 Although it appears that the Spanish It is a language that is widely used in Moroccan territory, the French far exceeds what. Unlike the Spanish, the French administration used by the modern Arab and simultaneously used in compulsory education, it is a language that is taught from the first levels of basic education. It is also the medium of instruction in scientific and technical faculties, the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences and the Schools and Colleges Superiores.26 In large cities, especially those who were under the French protectorate, this language is spoken by the upper middle class who have been educated in French or as Francisco Moscoso says "seeks to assimilate into French culture and way of approaching modernity even while remaining Moroccan" 27 The families of upper middle class tend to enroll their French children in private schools. Ennaji states that a Moroccan student who has passed the selectivity in French and has studied in a private French school, will have more job opportunities than one who has done so in public. Therefore, as we can see, French is seen as a prestigious Arabic language while no.28 As with the Spanish, French is used in the media, in this case there are two stations: Mediterranean Internationale and Radio Maghreb emitting Modern Standard Arabic and French. Moreover there is a television broadcast 2M mostly in French. What is most remarkable about this situation is that despite its widespread use and its function as the language, the French language has no institutional or official status. That is, that is not present in the Moroccan Constitution as a national language or an official language. Therefore, we can say that the French have not been left alone as a mark of French colonization but also as a bridge that has access to modernity, the world Occidente.29 Given the foregoing, it appears that the language Spanish and French doors open to professionals. Is it the same with the Berber languages?
Imazighen are indigenous peoples of North Africa and although its origin is still unclear, there is evidence that already lived what we now know as the Maghreb at the time of the fenicios.30 During the period of colonization, they are designated by Berber term, which literally means barbaric. Today, they call themselves Amazigh, in Spanish "free man" and play a key part of the language policy of Morocco. It is important, before proceeding, to clarify the meaning of terms that we use because they can be misleading. The term "Amazigh", the plural is imazighen one hand refers to the culture and people of the indigenous peoples of North Africa and the other encompassing all the different languages spoken (Rif, Tashelhit, tanfusit, Tuareg ...) . For political reasons, in recent years we have tried to use the term to refer to Tamazight language, but this change has not permeated the population, which still refers to the "Amazigh" word. In Spain and in general throughout the West are also known as Berber languages. Although they are essentially oral tradition, today many of them are written by an alphabet called Tifinagh. Considering the above and use issues in this work we refer to the Amazigh language with terms and Berber languages. Amazigh cause is involved in a great controversy, as well as being sociolinguistic conflict in recent years has become a political war. The Moroccan government said after the census of 2004 only 28% of the population speaks Amazigh, while groups that defend the rights of the Berber people say this language speakers represent more than 65% (Handaine, 2013. September 2014, prior to the sixth population census Morocco weeks, the Amazigh World Assembly told a press conference in Rabat as "the High Commissioner in 2004 census falsified the number of people who speak Amazigh." The Association claims that the method still has the clear goal of "minimizing the role of the Berbers in Morocco" 31 Some of the failures that highlights the Association is asking the Amazigh citizens only if read or write in their mother tongue, when the Constitution of 2011 established as official languages are Arabic and "Amazigh" and is therefore all the Maghreb heritage not only of Berber origin. The fact that the Amazigh language official state language in the Constitution is declared 2011 is, without doubt, a great achievement. But much remains to be done, because what is the reality of the Berber languages in Morocco? "Easier said than done, there is a stretch." The way in which this matter has been addressed again demonstrates the Spanish proverb is very wise. For legal and legal issues the "Amazigh" does not have the presence that should be the official language at the institutional level. Also, due to lack of interest by the Ministry of Education, in 2012 the teaching of these languages in schools was unsuccessful. It was left to the responsibility of the directors to promote and create programs for instruction, when this, logically, should have come from the minister and his staff. If its importance is not recognized in schools and colleges, and even talk about higher education in universities, where it can only be accessed if you speak Arabic and French, which as mentioned above is a European language that does not consist of recognition in the Constitution. Also, you can use the Berber languages in the courts or in Parliament. The April 30, 2012 during a parliamentary session, Fatima Chahou spoke in his native language: Amazigh. Following this event, President of the Chamber banned its use despite being, again, official claiming that the main cause was the lack of intérpretes.32 This is clearly an unconstitutional act and an attack on the dignity of Berber, and that is being denied to thousands of people who use it as the language of the right to know what is happening in their country. In addition, like any mother tongue, this has a great emotional and personal burden, so many prefer to use in their daily lives outside school and secular level. Again, the Berbers is preventing them feel in their language, something so inherent and necessary for all mankind. In addition, the Amazigh have also had to face discrimination by the government. The High Commissioner for Water and Forests prevents them from using land that has been theirs for centuries since 2012.33 Currently there are associations such as the World Amazigh Congress, the IRCAM IPAAC or struggling to preserve the Amazigh bearer of an ancient culture and environmentally friendly.
Eggplant, tomato rice, lentils and rice with saffron.
Morocco is a country with ethnic diversity and rich historical and cultural heritage. Over the years, it has been home to various human groups from the east (Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Arabs), South (Africans) and North (Romans, Barbarians, andalusanos, Moors and Jews). All these civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco, a place where various forms of beliefs, from paganism, Judaism to Christians and Islam.
Since independence there has been a flowering in Moroccan arts, especially in painting, sculpture, popular music, theater and film. In addition, throughout the country various art and music festivals are held, especially during the summer. Each region has its own cultural characteristics that give their identity, and at the same time contribute to the historical and cultural legacy of the nation. For this reason, the Moroccan government has placed among its priorities the protection, preservation and promotion of cultural heritage of Morocco.