The Horror of Two Cullodens and the Highland Clearances
The Two Cullodens - Overseas Connection
There is a Culloden of UK, the site of a heinous massacre, and another Culloden of the same story in the American South. Both cities have histories that are blood and battle in April -- War followed displaced, starving Scots immigrants to America.
Writers Sir Walter Scott, a Lowlander Scot, and Mark Twain of Missouri connect these battles in another way, while a lesser-known woman who fought in the Battle of Culloden between the British and the Scots as a colonel and commander make very interesting history.
"Flower of Scotland (The Thistle)"
Scottish National Anthem, First Verse:
O flower of Scotland
When will we see
Your like again
That fought and died for
Your wee bit hill & glen
And stood against him
Proud Edward's army
And sent him homeward
Tae think again
According to Dr. William Campbell, advisor and friend to gourmet Jeff Smith in many of his productions, Scots immigration in America began at the point of British colonization and continued in waves if time, connected with the Scottish Potato Famine of 1844 and the ruthless and inhuman Highland Clearances from at least 1763 onward. Some clearance continued even into the time period of 1790 - 1810. Even later, 1921 - 1931, Scots immigrants flooded USA with 391,000 or more that fled Scottish economic depression.
In one of these waves came Alexander Graham Bell, the man who developed the precursor to all of our 21st Century iPhone gadgetry. In the earlier floods of Scots came the starving men and women evicted from their own lands by wealthy clan chiefs that suddenly had no further use for them. They were replaced by sheep...and then displaced by blood.
I learned of the darkest time in Scotland, of a potato famine to rival the Irish, and of ethnic cleansing. It featured in a series of novels set in Scotland and I read every word, twice - for we were not taught in school anything about it.
Now I know more about why the older folks in my father's family would not speak of their immigration or heritage from Scotland and Ireland. They buried their past. They claimed only London, where a family remnant remained for some years. They had been large in number before a feud split them to different corners of the UK and America.
Those that went to Scotland found the government defining native Scots as less than savages, calling them wild and wanton. The clans were looked upon as low-life gangs.
Scotland experienced the same politically-enhanced famine as Ireland, other crops shipped south while the people that grew them starved. The 1740s saw a group leave Scotland for to Georgia, USA. The commemorative town's name is Culloden, named for the moor of the battle between Brits and Scots, Hanovers and Stuarts, and on another level, Protestants and Catholics. Culloden, Georgia and nearby cities and towns celebrate Scotland with annual Highland Games today.
The April of War
Scottish refuges settled in Georgia; one Scot, William Culloden, opened a store in 1780 on land that later became the Town of Culloden, Georgia in Monroe County and the Macon Metro Area. Today, the town's small population reports only about 3% Scottish heritage.
In the American Civil War, a Battle of Culloden occurred in April, as it's namesake battle in UK had erupted (April 16, 1746): April 19, 1865. Only 200 Confederate solders from the Worrill Grays held off the Northerners. while the Confederate Culloden became a field of blood.
The Culloden Historic District became a member of the US National Register of Historic Places in 1980, Number 80001119; the associated Historic Marker at the battle site reads:
"BATTLE OF CULLODEN
On April 19, 1865, a part of Wilson's Federal Raiders, moving toward Macon, encountered the "Worrill Grays" near this spot. The "Grays," numbering less than 200 men, fought a magnificent battle, greatly outnumbered. After a two-hour battle they finally yielded to the superior force, leaving their dead and wounded in Federal hands. So fierce was the fighting that the two men in the 17th Indiana (mounted) Infantry who captured the flag of this fighting unit, were awarded Medals of Honor by the United States Government.
From 102-5 GEORGIA HISTORICAL COMMISSION 1956"
Culloden in Scotland, UK
Religious Politics in Scotland
The Battle of Culloden occurred between the armies of Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonny Prince Charlie) and the Duke of Cumberland in the UK. After the battle was lost by the Jacobite Scots, Stuart fled to France and was picked up by French boats at Arnish Loch.
Background of the Battle
"Jacobites" became a political name for Scots that continued to follow King James II (Jacobe in Latin) of England and IV of Scotland, a Catholic. He'd been removed from the throne in 1688 by his daughter Mary Stuart. With her came her 1st cousin and husband, William of Orange, a Protestant.
This is the same Orange connected with the Order of Orange in Scotland, Ireland and elsewhere, which color represents Protestantism and even a history of anti-Catholic sentiment. The religious antagonisms are still in operation, although a movement is afoot to deny them, in the same vein as Holocaust denial.
In my family heritage, the Londoners and those that went to the Irish and Scots and who were Protestant - largely Presbyterian - spoke volumes against the Catholic Church. Growing up, I heard how Catholics are "bad", but without substantiation: I did not believe it. I hear it in my city today to a lesser extent.
The Jacobites adopted another symbol, the White Rose of York, for which White Rose Day happens every June 10, birthday of James Francis Edward Stuart III of England and VIII of Scotland. The rose became the official emblem for Yorkshire in England, where Professor Sir Patrick Stewart (Stuart) was born and to whence he returned after Star Trek® and X-Men® to serve as Chancellor of Huddersfield University and provide scholarships that support work to end violence. Let it end soon.
Clan factions, Jacobites, Whigs, Poretants, Catholics. fought among themselves to restore King James in his daughter's place or to retain King George II of England. War and rebellion increased to the climax of the Battle of Culloden.
Aftermath 1746 - 1931
The 200 Years of Immigration to Flee Poverty
After the Battle of Culloden was won, British Parliament outlawed the wearing of clan tartans and the use of bagpipes for a time, at least among the poor - the pipes might be applied as weapons. Scots Gaelic was reportedly banned as well; all these bans similar to impositions upon Koreans by the Japanese during WWII. The aftermath of bloody Culloden was long and harsh.
Certain clan chiefs took over land ownership from the clanspeople, becoming wealthy landowners. They began to drive humans, the Highlanders, out of their lands to "improve" the land for sheep raising. The Scottish Potato Famine in 1844 enouraged both voluntary and imposed exile of Scots, becoming the Highland Clearances later.
Remaining Jacobites after 1746 were hunted for slaughter in public executions for decades, perhaps 40,000+ people beheaded before huge watching crowds.
Propaganda and Genocide
Famed writer Sir Walter Scott created a myth that hurt Scotland. He traveled to Waterloo in the Napoleonic Wars to see the bloody aftermath and felt French efforts wasted. In Scotland, the remaining Highlanders starved in factory jobs or on small farm plots as crofters. Many were displaced to the coastal areas or out of the country. Most remaining had no civil rights. Sir Walter Scott saw the opportunity to begin a worker's rebellion.
As US Southerners of Scots ancestry and others became enamored of Sir Water Scott's work after his death in 1832, Mark Twain blamed his uplifting of war and battle for the South's cessation and the Civil War, which resulted in its own Battle of Culloden. Scott wove public relations and propaganda to bring back Scottish symbols; some Confederate soldiers wore tartans, but some of these were fictitious -- For example, the Memphis Tennesee Highland Guard wore kilts and Scottish trousers.
Scott decided to "search" for the Scottish Crown Jewels, although he knew they were in Edinburgh Castle. He broke into a sealed room and reclaimed the crown, sceptre, and sword for Scotland. He declared to the large crowd outside that he had "found" the jewels, hoping to unite Scots workers.
Scott wrote a protest song previously and had it distributed to the people to motivate them toward rebellion and unsuccessfully elicited clan chiefs who were rich with sheep for help. He gathered his own army to no avail, so perpetrated a fiction that English King George, mostly German, was related to the Scots. George purchased a full Scottish kit to appear Scottish, phoney tartans were created, and other acts of deception followed.
Highlanders displaced to coastal areas lived on scant money made from a temporary seaweed industry or as crofters raising a few potatoes. Potatoes were 80% of the diet, but the 1846, potato blight killed 80% of the crop. Other crops were shipped out for profit. However, Sir Walter Scott had romanticized the Highlander in literature to a point where wealthier Scots raised money to help. Still, Highland landowners like Lord MacDonald and the Sutherlands (perhaps the most dastardly) continued to evict thousands of crofters, first to the coasts and then to America, Canada, and Australia. The Highland Clearances stimulated further emigration into the 1900s, poverty and government notions of "overpopulation" generating future instances of the same. The Clearances are noted by different sources to have included different years, but certainly influenced emigration from Scotland, 1746 - 1931. The hunting and killing of Jacobites occurred for decades within the first half of that time period.
The link below is astonishing in its depth of handling the details of the build-up to the Battle of Culloden in UK and its aftermath.
The Black Watch
The warriors of the Black Watch were so-named, because of their dark tartan and their responsibility to watch the Western Highlands of Scotland, beginning in 1725.
It was from these very Highlands that the poorer Scots were cleared after 1745, after 1844, after 1885. The Black Watch have been instrumental in many battles in history. In the video to the right, we see them in the 21st Century, having served in the Middle East.
Officially, the Black Watch is the Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS), an infantry battalion of Royal Regiment of Scotland. The Royal Stewart Tartan is worn by the battalion's Pipes and Drums to connect them with the royalty.
Amazing Grace was written by John Newton in the late 1770s.
The following performance features a group of pipers from The Royal Regiment of Scotland (Back Watch) and the Irish Guards performing Amazing Grace (second number) along with Scottish Farewell, Taps, and Auld Lang Syne.
St. Andrew's Cross or Saddle Stirrup?
The white symbol on the Scottish Flag in its traditonal light blue color is a saltire or saltyre, otherwise called St. Andrews Cross. A legend says that Saint Andrew was crucified on a cross of this shape; however, other histories* state that the shape came from the appearance of the stirrup used for mounting to ride horses. In the end, the saltire is identified with Saint Andrew the Martyr and cherished throughout the land.
The Novelist Who Told the Tale For 40 Years
Lady Anne Farquharson-Mackintosh, a woman Colonel fighting in the war, commanded troops of the Jacobite Rebellion. She was the inspiration for the character of the mother of a journalist-detective in a mystery series spanning several decades and 29 books.The history of Scotland was revealed through this character for 40 years without readers realizing the fact.
Anne Mackintosh Qwilleran is the mother of James "Qwill" Qwilleran of "The Cat Who...series." Each book in woven, bit by bit, with the history of Anne and her Scots background, traced from ancient Scotland to American immigration in large numbers, to modern Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota, and Canada. Traditions, symbols, tartans, daggers, landmarks, stories, businesses, clubs, and trips to Scotland and its castles bring the reader a history of Scotland through these books. The handling of the Battle of Culloden and other Scots history in one particular volume is extraordinary.
Only the veteran Detroit Free Press journalist Lilian Jackson Braun performed enough in-depth research over her career to weave such a history into a mystery novel series. Few readers have recognized all of the Scottish connections she placed into the series. She interwove Chinese Art, Gilbert and Sullivan, criminology, Scotland, the history of the Northeast Central United States and its Scots immigrants, and several other topics with a sense of honoring them all.
Culloden; Undiscovered Scotland: The Ultimate Online Guide. www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/inverness/culloden/ Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- Culloden in America: Culloden Highland Games, Piping, Drumming, and Pipe Band Competition, Georgia, USA http://cullodencommittee.tripod.com/ Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Inglish, P. Colonel Anne vs. The Black Watch. hubpages.com/education/Col-Anne-vs-the-Black-Watch-at-Culloden Retrieved November 19, 2012.
© 2010 Patty Inglish MS