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Who Put the X into Xmas?

Updated on December 19, 2012
JohnMello profile image

JohnMello is a writer, composer, musician and the author of books for children and adults.

Xmas has been used as an abbreviation for over 100 years
Xmas has been used as an abbreviation for over 100 years | Source

What goes through your mind when you see the word "Christmas" abbreviated to Xmas?

You might think it's an irreverent way to refer to one of the most important holidays on the Western calendar. You might think it's laziness on the part of advertizers and manufacturers. You might think it's an inevitable consequence of our desire to crucify the English language, much like the use of text speak on cellphones. But the truth is something completely different - and delightfully unexpected.

To find out where it all began, we have to go back in time and examine its usage in a number of different languages.

The labarum, often called the Chi-Rho, is a Christian symbol representing Christ
The labarum, often called the Chi-Rho, is a Christian symbol representing Christ | Source

The Origins of Xmas

Believe it or not, the reference to Christmas as "Xmas" dates back to as early as 1100. To find out how it developed, let's look at the roots of the full word.

The word Christmas is generally accepted to refer to Christ Mass, a religious celebration of the birth of Christ. We can break the word into its two constituent bits; the first bit is Christ, which is self explanatory, and the second is -mas, which is an Old English term for Mass derived from Latin.

So half of the word has origins in the Latin language - but what about the other half? That we get from the Greeks, whose word for Christ (Χριστός) begins with the letter Chi - which is equivalent to X in English. Handwritten abbreviations for the term, such as Xtemass, came about because of the crossover from one language to another.

A 19th century Canadian postage stamp bearing the phrase "Xmas 1898"
A 19th century Canadian postage stamp bearing the phrase "Xmas 1898" | Source

Xmas Traditions

Many variants of the word Christmas have existed throughout the centuries. The name Christ was historically shortened to Xt and to simply X, so that the word "Xmas" seems a natural extension of that practice.

It was written as "Xp̄es mæsse" in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 1100, and appears as "X'temmas" in 1551. Lewis Carroll, Lord Byron and Samuel Coleridge used the term in the 19th century, while Oliver Wendell Holmes included it in a letter dated 1923.

Many Christians abhor the use of the abbreviation, feeling that this is an attempt to take "Christ" out of Christmas and take us even further away from the true meaning of the occasion. Some modern institutions, including the BBC and The New York Times, agree with them, implying that the abbreviated spelling should be considered casual and should never be used for formal or public communication.

It's surprising to see the abbreviation used in a Christmas card as in the picture at the beginning of this article, particularly back in 1910 when the card was produced. The 1948 edition of Vogue's Book of Etiquette states that the word Xmas should never be used in greeting cards.

A typically decorated Xmas tree
A typically decorated Xmas tree | Source

Happy Xmas

So now we can see that Xmas is not irreverent, and it's not a question of laziness. Like many of the traditions associated with Christmas, its origin has become blurred with time. But just because we've lost touch with where it came from doesn't mean we should jump to criticize its usage.

If you think about it, the X in Xmas could be taken as a representation of the cross on which Jesus Christ suffered. Christmas is, of course, a celebration of the birth of Christ; but once you understand the connection to the Greek letter Chi (X) and the need for human beings to continually adapt and recontextualize language, it seems almost inevitable that the term "Xmas" would find its way into the everyday vocabulary.


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    • JohnMello profile imageAUTHOR


      4 years ago from England

      Thanks Sander Witte. Good point!

    • profile image

      Sander Witte 

      4 years ago

      I am 56 and I’ve never heard this explanation before. It does make a difference I suppose but, I think that 99% of the world doesn’t know this. If we are really going to celebrate the birth of Christ then to avoid any confusion why not just use the English Christmas and remind ourselves of His birth and of the greatest sacrifice in history that he made for us.

    • JohnMello profile imageAUTHOR


      5 years ago from England

      Thanks BlossomSB!

    • BlossomSB profile image

      Bronwen Scott-Branagan 

      5 years ago from Victoria, Australia

      I knew about this, but I like the way you have expressed it. The photos/illustrations are great, too. I love the postage stamp, I hadn't seen that one before.

    • JohnMello profile imageAUTHOR


      5 years ago from England

      Thanks peachpurple! Glad you liked it.

    • peachpurple profile image


      5 years ago from Home Sweet Home

      brilliant explaination. Gain more knowledge about christmas origin. Wonderful hub


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