Bats in Halloween Folklore and the History of Halloween Bats
Bats, Bonfires and the Celtics
Think of Halloween and which images comes to mind?
Pumpkins, witches and goblins, black cats and of course -- bats!
Bats are one of the spookiest and most enduring images of Halloween. But how did the image of this harmless and beneficial flying mammal become a feared harbinger of darkness and evil?
The History of Halloween Bats: The black, winged shape of bats flying through the dusky night sky are eternally linked to Halloween. It may have started long ago, when the ancient Celtics lit large bonfires as darkness approached to ward off the evil spirits of the night. According to the legends, the Celtics believed the ghosts of their ancestors returned to earth once each year on the night of October 31st when the spirits of the dead could cross over into the world of the living. These unruly spirits roamed the lands in search of mischief and mayhem. As protection from the ghosts, the Celtics held an annual celebration on this night, known as Samhain (pronounced as "sah-win"), which also marked the end of the harvest season. The superstitious Celtics, dressed in costumes made from animal skins and hides, gathered around large bonfires to burn sacrificial offerings of crops and animals to appease the demons returning from the the Other World.
As the bonfires burned into the night, the glow and warmth of the fire attracted mosquitos and other flying insects into the surrounding area. In turn, the flying insects attracted hungry bats, swooping and darting in and out of the dusky light from the fire in search of their prey. The dark, shadowy and fast moving shapes of the bats flying through the semi-darkness may have appeared to the Celtics as the embodied spirits of the returning the dead, and the symbol of the bat became embedded in the roots of Halloween lore.
Image Credit: Public Domain
Halloween Bats: Friend or Fiend?
Bats: Creepy Demons of the Night...
For centuries, tales and rumors of blooding-sucking bats spread throughout Europe. The evil images of a winged demon, preying on the blood of unsuspecting victims while they slept through the black of night fit perfectly into the darkness of Halloween holiday.
The discovery of the Vampire Bat in South America by the Spanish in the 17th century strengthened the stories of blood-hungry bats in search of a meal. Many believed that the unfortunate victims of vampire bats mysteriously transformed into human vampires that sought the blood of more victims. As stories of human vampires spread, it was widely believed that the vampire could transform into the shape of the bat -- creating another tie between the evil bats and the symbols of Halloween.
Vampire Bat Image Credit: Acatenazzi (Public Domain)
... Or Beneficial Nocturnal Hunters?
Fortunately, bats are not evil demons of the dark -- unless you're a moth or mosquito. Bats have voracious appetites, and can eat over 1,000 flying insects in a single night. They hunt their prey using echolocation, a type of radar that enables the bat to detect flying insects in total darkness.
Contrary to popular myths, bats are not blind. In fact, most bat species have excellent eye sight. Some bat species, such as the Flying Fox pictured here, eat a diet of fruit and help disperse the seeds. Other bats are important plant pollinators as they search the flowers for nectar.
Sadly, many of the world's bat species are in serious decline, threatened by the loss of habitat for nesting and for roosting sites. You can help by hanging a bat house to encourage these beneficial predators to take up residence in your yard.
Image Credit: Latorilla (Public Domain)
You Need Not Call the Devil. He'll Come Without Calling.
Bat Sense - by Nature Video
Bat Facts and Myths
Did you know?
- Bats are not flying rats, and they are not even rodents. Bats belong to class of animals known as Chiroptera when means hand-wing.
- Bats are the only mammals that are capable of true flight.
- Bats do not fly at people, and they will not get tangled in your hair. They use echolocation to hunt their prey and navigate through the darkness.
- There are over 1100 species of bats worldwide, and only three species are vampires. The rest of the bat species eat insects, fruits, nectar and pollen.
- Bats eat billions of insects every year. A single bat catches and eats over 1,000 per night.
- Fruit and nectar eating bats are important pollinators. They also disperse seeds from the fruits that they eat.
- Bats have excellent vision. They are not blind.
- Bats can live over 25 years.
- Female bats give birth to only one young per year.
- The Flying Fox is the largest bat, with a wingspan of over six feet.
- Bat populations are threatened by White Nose Syndrome. The disease is highly contagious among bats, and many populations are in serious decline. About half of the bat species in the US are listed as threatened or endangered.
“Not every winged Creature is considered a bird or a bat. Some wings are made of magic."— Raani York – 2013
The Largest Bat in the World
Give A Bat A Home
Invite A Bat Into Your Yard
Build or buy a bat house, and give these special animals a place to live. Bats prey on insects, catching and eating hundreds of mosquitoes and other flying pests every evening.
Bat houses are available through online retailers, or build a bat house yourself. Just make sure that the bat house is actually built to the dimensions that a bat will actually use. Many look good to people, but do not meet the basic roosting requirements of the bats.
Where you hang a bat house is also important for attracting these winged residents. The bat house should face an open area, preferably with a southern exposure to maximize the amount of warmth from the sun. The bat house should be mounted at least 10' up from the ground, and higher if possible.
For step-by-step instructions on building our version of the bat house, please visit How To Build A Bat House
Single Chamber Bat House - Approved by the Organization for Bat Conservation
Bats Around the Web
- Bat Conservation International
Bat Conservation International's mission is to conserve the world's bats and their ecosystems to ensure a healthy planet.
- DEP of Connecticut: Bat Fact Sheet
Information and conservation for the declining bat populations in the Northeast.
- Defenders of Wildlife
Basic facts about bats.
- Organization for Bat Conservation
The Organization for Bat Conservation is dedicated to protecting bats, other wildlife, and the ecosystems they need to survive. We have the largest grass-roots bat conservation education program in the United States.
- Bats Northwest
Bats Northwest envisions a future where the essential role of bats is understood, where the public recognizes the vital place of bats in our environment and economy, and where all are inspired by bats’ remarkable attributes and invaluable contributio
- San Diego Zoo: Bats
Quick Bat Facts and conservation tips
- Bats: Living with Wildlife
Bats are highly beneficial to people, and the advantages of having them around far outweigh any problems you might have with them. As predators of night-flying insects (including mosquitoes!), bats play a role in preserving the natural balance of you
Advice from a Bat
Trust in your senses
Spend time just hanging around with your friends
Get a grip
Enjoy the nightlife
Sometimes you just gotta wing it
(quoted from Ilan Shamir)