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Sprung Rhythm in The Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins

Updated on July 18, 2015
Gerard Manley Hopkins
Gerard Manley Hopkins | Source

Gerard Manley Hopkins and His Poetry : Introduction

The poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins is full of unusual and innovative phrases and rhythms, inspired by Nature and created in praise of his God. A Jesuit priest and teacher, many of his poems are religious but transcend religion, are beautifully structured and have what Hopkins called sprung rhythm, a term he invented and which is based on Old and Middle English lines with alliteration and rhyme.

When I read his poetry I sometimes feel the words bouncing off my tongue in a strange yet enriching syllabic dance. It's fascinating. His poetry was certainly different for the time.

He also created the terms inscape and instress which are to do with why a thing is created and how divine energy holds things together.

'Poetry is in fact the speech employed to carry the inscape of speech for inscape's sake.'

His poems are full of observations made out in the countryside of England, Wales and Ireland. He refers to the landscape, the trees, plants and in particular the birds. His poetry gives praise to God, the Lord and the Holy Spirit, the energy inside every living thing.

I find his work fascinating despite it's complexity. He uses words for their musicality and aural effect.

This guide will throw light on three major poems - Inversnaid, The Windhover and God's Grandeur - as well as giving insights into the life and times of Gerard Manley Hopkins.


Gerard Manley Hopkins is an important link between the Romantic poets (for example Wordsworth and Keats) the Victorians (Tennyson and Browning) and on through to Ezra Pound and the Imagists. Why?

His poetry used new words, gave fresh twists to the English language and brought different use of stressed and unstressed syllables. Because of his experiments he helped loosen up poetic expression.

The Windhover is a kestrel, Falco tinnunculus.
The Windhover is a kestrel, Falco tinnunculus. | Source

The Windhover

To Christ Our Lord


I caught this morning morning’s minion, king-

dom of daylight’s dauphin, dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon, in his riding

Of the rolling level underneath him steady air, and striding

High there, how he rung upon the rein of a wimpling wing

In his ecstasy! then off, off forth on swing,

As a skate’s heel sweeps smooth on a bow-bend: the hurl and gliding

Rebuffed the big wind. My heart in hiding

Stirred for a bird,—the achieve of; the mastery of the thing!


Brute beauty and valour and act, oh, air, pride, plume, here

Buckle! AND the fire that breaks from thee then, a billion

Times told lovelier, more dangerous, O my chevalier!

No wonder of it: shéer plód makes plough down sillion

Shine, and blue-bleak embers, ah my dear,

Fall, gall themselves, and gash gold-vermillion.

The Windhover - Help with Words

Word
Meaning
minion
favourite or darling
dauphin
a french word for prince
wimpling
rippling
rung upon
hold the end of
buckle
fasten, meet in one, join closely
chevalier
knight/hero
sillion
ridge between furrows of a ploughed field
gall
break the surface

Analysis Guide

Hopkins considered this his best ever poem. It's about a falcon - called a kestrel - a bird of prey that when hunting, 'hovers' above the ground looking out for mice and voles and other creatures, which it swoops down on. It's also a master of the wind, using sharp wings and keen senses when flying.

The poem initially focuses on the physical action of this bird, how it delights and inspires the poet. This in turn releases the spiritual energy within, the human desire to attain such heights of ecstasy, related to the sacrifice made by Christ.

The first six lines take us straight into the bird's flight, captured by the poet in first person, not physically catching the kestrel but caging it with the eye. Note how the sound pattern changes, twists and turns and flows, reflecting the movement of the falcon as it exploits the wind.

Watch out for enjambment, assonance and alliteration, poetical devices that help bring texture and movement within the unusual rhyme scheme - all the words from line 1-8 end in -ing.

Line 7 suggests that the poet was inspired by the kestrel's flight, uplifted by the exceptional artistry:

My heart in hiding

Stirred for a bird,- the achieve of, the mastery of the thing!

Technically there's iambic pentameter in line 1 (caught, morn, morn, min, king) but then the lines begin to stretch and challenge. Line 2 for example has seven stresses and is what Hopkins called an outrider. You can sense the poet's excitement as the bird again and again masters the 'big wind'.

The final six lines of the sonnet deal with the beauty of this bird and its inherent spiritual energy, in this case related to Christ. There is a 'fire' within the kestrel that takes the bird to the edge, into near danger, soaring to the heights, a true royal. This fire is within us all and every living thing;even the earthly soil turned over by the plough, which shines as it cuts, revealing the interior, the essence, which is 'gold-vermilion', like blood.

Inversnaid


This darksome burn, horseback brown,

His rollrock highroad roaring down,

In coop and in comb the fleece of his foam

Flutes and low to the lake falls home.


A windpuff-bonnet of fáwn-fróth

Turns and twindles over the broth

Of a pool so pitchblack, féll-frówning,

It rounds and rounds Despair to drowning.


Degged with dew, dappled with dew

Are the groins of the braes that the brook treads through,

Wiry heathpacks, flitches of fern,

And the beadbonny ash that sits over the burn.


What would the world be, once bereft

Of wet and of wildness? Let them be left,

O let them be left, wildness and wet;

Long live the weeds and the wilderness yet.

Inversnaid waterfall, inspiration for the poem.
Inversnaid waterfall, inspiration for the poem. | Source

Analysis Guide

Inversnaid is a short four stanza poem about the Scottish wilderness, near Loch Lomond. It has a classic look and feel - until you start reading through for the first time. Unusual words and phrases begin their journey along your tongue, reflecting the flow of the 'darksome burn' (Scots burn = English brook or beck) as it tumbles down.

Take the first two lines:

This darksome burn, horseback brown,

His rollrock highroad roaring down...

Full of energy and power these rough tetrameter lines have four compound words one of which is invented - rollrock - within a common rhyme scheme. The second line conjures up an image of water crashing down over boulders, quite evocative.

The second and third stanzas continue the vivid descriptions of this burn as it tumbles its way into the lake below. Note the short line and the longer line in stanza three.

Degged with dew, dappled with dew

Are the groins of the braes that the brook treads through,


The final stanza is a direct question followed by the answer, one which has great relevance for today, with the environment being such a hot topic. Having set the scene with a wonderfully textured description of the burn as it threads its way downwards the poem then asks the reader - what the world would be like without 'wet and wildness?'


The poet suggests that the world would be 'bereft', it would lose something vital. The last line is curious - 'Long live' is often used to praise royalty as in 'Long live the King', yet here it's used to praise lowly weeds. I think this is a nod to the grandeur of God again. Although the poet doesn't mention God or Christ or the Holy Spirit in the poem, stanza one does imply that the rollrock highroad is 'His', ie God's.

_______________________________________

Inversnaid - Help With Words

(click column header to sort results)
Word  
Meaning  
darksome
compound of dark and handsome
burn
brook/small stream/beck
coop
enclosed hollow
comb
rippling water
Flutes
flute or frill shape
windpuff-bonnet
floating/riding like a sail or hat
fawn
light brown colour like a young deer
twindles
mix of dwindle, twist
fell-frowning
severe frown
rounds
surrounded/whispers
Degged
sprinkled (Scots dialect)
groins
curved edges
braes
banks or hillsides(Scots dialect)
heathpacks
heather packed/heath clumps
flitches
side of meat/flicks or streaks
beadbonny
beautiful droplets like beads
bereft
robbed of a lover or loved ones.

Brief Biography

Gerard Manley Hopkins was born on July 28th, 1844 in Stratford, Essex, England. Both his parents were staunch Anglicans and his father an amateur poet. The young Hopkins was bright enough to win a scholarship which took him to Balliol College, Oxford, to study Classics.

An artistic person, he was also deeply religious but unable to find contentment at Oxford. Eventually he met with Cardinal Newman, a convert from Church of England Anglicism to Roman Catholicism. Newman's influence proved crucial. Over the next two years Hopkins entered the Catholic church, passed his degree with first class honours and joined the Society of Jesus to train as a Jesuit priest. He was 22 years old.

He'd never stopped writing poetry during his days at Oxford and was strongly attracted towards the work of Christina Rossetti and John Ruskin. He also considered painting as a way forward in his life but ultimately it was the need to serve God that prevailed.

When he became a priest he burned all of his poetry because he thought it might clash with his role as a humble servant of God. He stopped writing altogether in 1868.

In his studies he began to read the work of an early philosopher, Duns Scotus, who thought that a human could only know things and objects directly by their inner essence. Gradually, with other influences taking hold, he took up poetry again, returning to his Muse in 1874.

Sonnets and verse flowed from his pen, climaxing in 1877 when he wrote many of his most well known poems.

Up until his death from typhus in 1889 little of his poetry was published. It was only when his friend Robert Bridges published a collection of his poems in 1918 that people became aware of Hopkins's exceptional work.

Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins was published by Humphrey Milford in London. A second edition in 1930 finally established his name.

Many modern poets have been influenced by his work, including Seamus Heaney, Sylvia Plath, Dylan Thomas, W.H.Auden and T.S. Eliot.

I always knew in my heart Walt Whitman's mind to be more like my own than any other man's living. As he is a very great scoundrel this is not a pleasant confession.

— Gerard Manley Hopkins
God's Grandeur in Nature.
God's Grandeur in Nature.

God's Grandeur

The world is charged with the grandeur of God.

It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;

It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil

Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?

Generations have trod, have trod, have trod;

And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;

And wears man’s smudge and shares man’s smell: the soil

Is bare now, nor can foot feel, being shod.



And for all this, nature is never spent;

There lives the dearest freshness deep down things;

And though the last lights off the black West went

Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springs—

Because the Holy Ghost over the bent

World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.

Analysis Guide

This poem is about the energy of God, it's continuing greatness and depth within Nature, despite the attempts of humans to destroy its beauty. Like many of Hopkins's poems this sonnet appears to be classical in form. For example, it has two parts, the 8 line octet and 6 line sestet, separated. The rhyme scheme is abbaabba cdcdcd. So far so good.

What makes this poem pure Hopkins is the unusual use of language and metre. Take lines 2 and 3.

Line 2 is pentameter but is it iambic? ...shining from shook foil...is a good example of sprung rhythm, two stressed syllables together, reflecting common speech.

Line 3 is an enjambed line...the ooze of oil/crushed...and also contains sprung rhythm.

So we have the classical and the experimental in one.

Lines 4-8 concentrate on the damage industry and human trade can do to the planet.

'/Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?'


Note the single syllable run of this line, the internal rhyme men/then and the alliteration reck/rod. This means why don't men pay heed to God's power?

Internal rhyme continues with seared/bleared/smeared...wears/shares...repeat rhyme.... have trod/have trod with end rhyme shod and rod.

This rich mix of rhyme and rhythm give a brilliant texture to the poem.

The final six lines reinforce the strength of this divine energy. Human interference may happen but Nature always recovers:

There lives the dearest freshness deep down things


This line is often quoted and I love it for the optimism it holds. The poet is rejoicing in the fact that Mother Nature again and again replenishes that which is lost, recycles waste and comes out it with fresh growth. How this happens is down to the Holy Ghost which, like a nurturing bird broods over the planet keeping it safe and warm.

The final line has some interesting play between b and w....bent/World broods...with warm breast..with ah! bright wings.

_______________________________________________

Gerard Manley Hopkins - Religious Poetry - Conclusion

There's no doubting the passion for language and the love for God in these poems. You don't have to be religious to enjoy them but you do have to read through the lines repeatedly to get the most out of them. Yes, there are some awkward archaic words and some of the lines are grammatically confusing, yet the feel and flow more than make up.

For rhymes, rhythm and experimental language there are few poets to match his genius.

Richard Burton Reads The Leaden Echo and The Golden Echo by G.M.Hopkins

Images are by chef-de-jour unless stated otherwise.

© 2014 Andrew Spacey

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  • chef-de-jour profile image
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    Andrew Spacey 3 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Thank you for dropping by Chitrangada. Mr Hopkins was certainly a one off with his rich, textured poetry.

  • ChitrangadaSharan profile image

    Chitrangada Sharan 3 years ago from New Delhi, India

    A very well done, informative hub about the work of Gerard Manley Hopkins!

    I have read about his poetry but not so much in detail. Thank you for the education. Voted up!

  • chef-de-jour profile image
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    Andrew Spacey 3 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    jamie thank you for the visit. Mr Hopkins certainly produced some technically wild poems, complex and inspirational.

  • jhamann profile image

    Jamie Lee Hamann 3 years ago from Reno NV

    His work with prosodic form and his creation of his own sonnet fascinates me. What an incredible poet. Thank you for this great hub. Jamie

  • chef-de-jour profile image
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    Andrew Spacey 3 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Dianna thank you for the visit and comment. So glad you got something out of this challenging, innovative poet.

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    Dianna Mendez 3 years ago

    You certainly know your material and have shared it so that anyone can understand the deeper meaning of poetry. Your analysis and definition of words was a great add. I am now educated on this poet, Hopkins, and appreciate his work. Thank you.

  • chef-de-jour profile image
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    Andrew Spacey 3 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Thank you for the comment and visit Catherine, I appreciate them both.

  • CatherineGiordano profile image

    Catherine Giordano 3 years ago from Orlando Florida

    Thanks for the lovely poems. The glossaries were a real help. it was also interesting to read our analysis of the poems.

  • chef-de-jour profile image
    Author

    Andrew Spacey 3 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Thank you for visiting Theresa, much appreciated. A religious poet with a keen eye for Nature and a divine way with words.

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    Andrew Spacey 3 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    suzette, thank you for dropping by, I appreciate it.

  • Faith Reaper profile image

    Faith Reaper 3 years ago from southern USA

    Chef, this is such a wonderfully insightful hub into a truly gifted poet, Hopkins. He may now be my favorite poet due to your sharing his amazing poetry where his love for God shines through so beautifully.

    I will return to this hub and enjoy it often.

    Up ++++ tweeting, pinning, G+ and sharing

    Bless you

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    Suzette Walker 3 years ago from Taos, NM

    I love your hubs about poets and their poetry. I had forgotten about Gerald Manley Hopkins and this is a wonderful reminder of his unique and beautiful poetry. I like the poems you chose and thank you for your in depth analysis of these poems. I certainly enjoyed reading this. Voted up+ and shared.

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    Andrew Spacey 3 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Colleen, thank you for the visit. I think GMH was ahead of his time - a religious ecologist who loved playing around with words!

  • Colleen Swan profile image

    Colleen Swan 3 years ago from County Durham

    A lovely Hub. Beautifully written and illustrated. Inversnaid painted a heady picture. I needed the Help with Words for groins of the braes, and it all fell into place.