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Annotated Bibliography on Betrayal in Mythology

Updated on February 11, 2015

Final Version of Annotated Bibliography

Ancient Greek, Egypt, Norse, Irish, India, and Roman cultures have often viewed adultery, fratricide, or the breakage of the laws of hospitality as one of the greatest betrayals, and each culture tended to have a different view of the type of punishment merited for each type of betrayal; the betrayals throughout these culture’s myths have often served as a vehicle to convey the values of each ancient culture.

French, Robert, Peter Case, and Jonathan Gosling. "Betrayal and Friendship." Society and Business Review 4.2 (2009): 146-58. ProQuest. Web. 25 Jan. 2015.

The article "Betrayal and Friendship" is about how betrayal and friendship are often connected and how a betrayal that began with friendship can be more painful to bear than one that did not involve an original or deceitful friendship. I plan to use the information gathered from this source in my introduction paragraph, where I will discuss the theme of betrayal. I plan to write about how the betrayals of adultery, fratricide, and the breakage of the laws of hospitality were made worse by friendship or at least expected friendship. I will use this information in the part of my paper on fratricide in the “Children of Odin” and “Romulus and Remus” myth to show how Norse and Roman culture valued the bonds of family and friendship.

Galpaz-Feller, Pnina. "Private Lives and Public Censure: Adultery in Ancient Egypt and Biblical Israel." Near Eastern Archaeology 67.3 (2004): 152-61. Print.

This journal has information on ancient Egypt’s views on adultery, falsely claimed adultery, and the ways people who committed such crimes were punished. This journal highlights the Egyptian cultural value of fidelity through the harsh punishment to those who commit adultery. I will use the information from this journal to write about the Egyptian myth called “The Story of two brothers” to demonstrate how ancient Egypt held fidelity as a high value and saw those that would betray it punished. I will compare and contrast this article with “Amputation of the Nose throughout History” in order to establish the similarities and differences in ancient Egypt and India’s view and punishment for people who would commit adultery, in order to support my thesis.

Lindow, John. Norse Mythology : A Guide To The Gods, Heroes, Rituals, And Beliefs.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. eBook Academic Collection

(EBSCOhost).247-251. Web. 25 Jan. 2015.

This book was written on the topic of Norse mythology, specifically the gods, heroes, rituals, and beliefs displayed in the Norse myths. This book has a section on each of the Norse gods that focuses on each god’s role and relevance in Norse culture. I will use the information from this book in the section of my paper on the “Children of Odin” myth in order to demonstrate how Geirrod’s betrayals of his brother and of Odin’s teachings were a great betrayal in the Norse culture, and how this type of betrayal was punished in Norse culture. This information will allow me to compare and contrast Norse and Roman cultural views towards fratricide, in order to support my thesis.

Moudarres, Andrea. "The Enemy at Home: Fratricide and Civil Strife in Machiavelli’s Thought."

MLN 129.1 (2014): 22-41. Project MUSE. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.

The article "The Enemy at Home: Fratricide and Civil Strife in Machiavelli’s Thought" is Machiavelli’s discussion on Romulus’s slaying of his brother Remus. In this article, it is argued the Romulus’s fratricide of his brother was excusable because it was done for the good of Rome. I will use this source to show why Romulus was not punished in the myth while Geirrod from the “Children of Odin” myth was punished. The information from this source will be used to support my thesis by highlighting the difference of Norse and Roman culture in reference to their views and punishments for fratricide.

Niafer, Fenian. "The Tradition of Hospitality." The Tradition of Hospitality. AncientWorlds LLC, 26 Aug. 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2015. <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/617978>.

This article contains information about the tradition of hospitality in Irish culture. This article, much like the "The Law of Hospitality", gives information on what is required of the host and the guest based on the Irish tradition of hospitality. I will use the information from this article in the section on my paper on the myth of the “Long Life of Tuan McCarrell” to establish how Tuan Mac Carrell broke the laws of hospitality and betrayed his position of chieftain when he refused to offer Finnan, the Abbot of Moville, his hospitality. I will also use the information from this article to compare how similar the laws of hospitality are in the Irish and Greek cultures at the times of the myths, how both view the breaking of hospitality a betrayal, and the ways in which both punish a betrayal of hospitality.

Peterson, Amy T., and David J. Dunworth. Mythology In Our Midst: A Guide To Cultural References. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2004. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). 160-165. Web. 25 Jan. 2015.

This eBook was written on the topic of cultural references in mythology; it contains a section specifically on sibling rivalry in mythology. The book delves into the cultural significance of sibling rivalry in mythology. I plan to utilize the information from this source when I write about the myth of Romulus and Remus. I will use the information to compare the fratricidal betrayal of Romulus to Geirrod’s betrayals of his brother; I will compare and contrast the cultural similarities and difference surrounding this type of betrayal and punishment in Roman and Norse culture, on the subject of sibling rivalry. I will compare this source to Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, And Beliefs to establish that the two cultures both value the bonds of family and their gods/goddesses.

Pitt-Rivers, Julian. "The Law of Hospitality." HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory (2012):

501–517. Print.

This journal contains information about the law of hospitality as it was during the time of the Odyssey. This journal gives specific information about what each law of hospitality entails and what is considered a betrayal of hospitality. I plan to use the information gathered from this source in the part of my final paper where I discuss the betrayal of hospitality committed by Paris in the myth about Paris and Helen. I will use the information about the laws of hospitality to demonstrate how the breaking of the laws of hospitality was a great betrayal in the Greek culture, the ways that the value of hospitality is similar in Greek and Irish culture, and the ways in which both punished a betrayal of hospitality.

Powell, Barry. "Myths of the Brothers Who Hated Each Other." World Myth. Boston: Pearson, 2014. 86-96,213-218. Print.

The textbook for this course has the myths of: “Romulus and Remus” and “The Story of the two brothers”. The textbook has information about both myths that offer background information on the myths. I will use the information about the myth of two brothers to write about how the two brothers are actually two gods acting as humans in the myth in order to show that ancient Egyptian culture also valued their gods/goddesses. The book provides a myth about what occurs after Romulus created Rome; this myth will allow me to write about how Romulus was not punished for his fratricide and to compare his lack of punishment to the punishment of Geirrod in the “Children of Odin myth in order to support my thesis.

Sperati, G “Amputation of the Nose throughout History.” Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica

29.1 (2009): 44-50. Print.

This article is on the history of amputation throughout ancient history; it has a section specifically on how adultery was punished in ancient India. I will use the information from this source to write about the history of the betrayal of adultery in ancient India in reference to the myth of Ahalya. I will also use the information to compare how ancient India and ancient Egypt both had similar cultural views on the betrayal of adultery and how their belief on the type of punishment merited differed between the two cultures.

Draft 1 of Annotated Bibliography

Ancient cultures have often viewed adultery, fratricide, or the breakage of the laws of hospitality as one of the greatest betrayals and each culture tends to have a different view of the type of punishment merited for each type of betrayal.

Andrea Moudarres. "The Enemy at Home: Fratricide and Civil Strife in Machiavelli’s Thought."

MLN 129.1 (2014): 22-41. Project MUSE. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.

The article "The Enemy at Home: Fratricide and Civil Strife in Machiavelli’s Thought" is Machiavelli’s discussion on Romulus’s slaying of his brother Remus. In this article it is argued the Romulus’s fratricide of his brother was excusable because it was done for the good of Rome. I will use this source to show why Romulus was not punished in the myth while Geirrod from the children of Odin myth was punished. I will write about how Romulus was not punished because his betrayal was done with noble intentions while Geirrod’s betrayal was done for selfish reasons.

French, Robert, Peter Case, and Jonathan Gosling. "Betrayal and Friendship." Society and

Business Review 4.2 (2009): 146-58. ProQuest. Web. 25 Jan. 2015.

The article "Betrayal and Friendship" is about how betrayal and friendship are often connected and how a betrayal that began with friendship can be more painful to bear than one that did not involve an original or deceitful friendship. I plan to use the information gathered from this source in my introduction paragraph where I will discuss the theme of betrayal. I plan to write about how the betrayals of adultery, fratricide, and the breakage of the laws of hospitality where made worse by friendship or at least expected friendship.

Galpaz-Feller, Pnina. "Private Lives and Public Censure: Adultery in Ancient Egypt and Biblical Israel." Near Eastern Archaeology 67.3 (2004): 152-61. Print.

This journal has information on ancient Egypt’s views on adultery, falsely claimed adultery, and the ways people who committed such crimes were punished. This journal highlights the Egyptian cultural value of fidelity through the harsh punishment to those who commit adultery. I will use the information from this journal to write about the Egyptian myth called the story of two brothers. I will also use this information to demonstrate how ancient Egypt held fidelity as a high value and saw those that would betray it punished.

Lindow, John. Norse Mythology : A Guide To The Gods, Heroes, Rituals, And Beliefs.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. eBook Academic Collection

(EBSCOhost). Web. 25 Jan. 2015.

This book was written on the topic of Norse mythology specifically the gods, heroes, rituals, and beliefs displayed in the Norse myths. This book has a section on each of the Norse Gods that focuses on each god’s role and relevance in Norse culture. I will use the information from this book in the section of my paper on the children of Odin myth; in order to demonstrate how Geirrod’s betrayals of his brother and of Odin’s teachings were a great betrayal in the Norse culture. I will also use this source to show how this type of betrayal was punished in Nose culture.

Niafer, Fenian. "The Tradition of Hospitality." The Tradition of Hospitality. AncientWorlds LLC, 26 Aug. 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2015. <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/617978>.

This article contains information about the tradition of hospitality in Irish culture. This article, much like the "The Law of Hospitality", gives information on what is required of the host and the guest based on the Irish tradition of hospitality. I will use the information from this article in the section on my paper on the myth of the long life of Tuan McCarrell to establish how Tuan Mac Carrell broke the laws of hospitality and betrayed his position of chieftain when he refused to offer Tuan his hospitality. I will also use the information from this article to compare how similar the laws of hospitality are in the Irish and Greek cultures at the times of the myths, how both view the breaking of hospitality a betrayal, and the ways in which both punish a betrayal of hospitality.

Peterson, Amy T., and David J. Dunworth. Mythology In Our Midst: A Guide To Cultural References. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2004. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 25 Jan. 2015.

This eBook was written on the topic of cultural references in mythology; it contains a section specifically on sibling rivalry in mythology. The book delves into the cultural significance of sibling rivalry in mythology. I plan to utilize the information from this source when I write about the myth of Romulus and Remus. I will use the information to compare the fratricidal betrayal of Romulus to Geirrod’s betrayals of his brother; I will compare and contrast the cultural similarities and difference surrounding this type of betrayal and punishment in Roman and Norse culture.

Pitt-Rivers, Julian. "The Law of Hospitality." HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory (2012): 501–517. Print.

This journal contains information about the law of hospitality as it was during the time of the Odyssey. This journal gives specific information about what each law of hospitality entails and what is considered a betrayal of hospitality. I plan to use the information gathered from this source in the part of my final paper where I discuss the betrayal of hospitality committed by Paris in the myth about Paris and Helen. I will use the information about the laws of hospitality to demonstrate how the breaking of the laws of hospitality was a great betrayal in the Greek culture, the ways that the value of hospitality is similar in Greek and Irish culture, and the ways in which both punish a betrayal of hospitality.

Powell, Barry B. World Myth. Boston: Pearson, 2014. Print.

The textbook for this course has the myths of: Romulus and Remus and the story of the two brothers. The textbook has information about both myths that offer background information on the myths. I will use the information about the myth of two brothers to write about how the two brothers are actually two gods acting as humans in the myth. The book provides a myth about what occurs after Romulus created Rome; this myth will allow me to write about how Romulus was not punished for his fratricide and to compare his lack of punishment to the punishment of Geirrod.

Sperati, G “Amputation of the Nose Throughout History.” Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica

29.1 (2009): 44-50. Print.

This article is on the history of amputation throughout ancient history; it has a section specifically on how adultery was punished in ancient India. I will use the information from this source to write about the history of the betrayal of adultery in ancient India in reference to the myth of Ahalya. I will also use the information to compare how ancient India and ancient Egypt both had similar cultural views on the betrayal of adultery and how their belief on the type of punishment merited differed between the two cultures.

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