ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Chomsky and Transformational-generative Grammar

Updated on March 29, 2013
BlossomSB profile image

Bronwen was a teacher for over forty years. Degrees include School Librarianship, Psycholinguistics and Theology, and Applied Linguistics.

Noam Chomsky and transformational-generative theory

In the quest for the development of a way of studying the nature of language in a scientific manner, linguists have proposed a number of different models. Zelig Harris proposed the concept of a process called transformation where the order of the constituents of a sentence could be changed, deleted, substituted or added in order to account for the way a language was constructed, rather than the inadequate earlier methods of syntactic analysis of the descriptive linguists.

Noam Chomsky was a student of Harris, and, drawing on his knowledge of logic and mathematics, in 1957 he postulated the transformational-generative theory in order to construct models that would represent the psychological process of language.

Like the descriptivists, Chomsky held that the proper object of linguistic study is the native speaker's oral language, which he extended to include grammatical intuition and knowledge. He referred to this as "competence," which involves the ability to perceive the structure of sentences, to recognize paraphrases, and to detect ambiguity. He held that this ability is what enables people to produce and understand an infinite number of sentences in that language; he called this "performance."

Chomsky was interested in constructing a grammar that would generate the structures that constitute the individual's linguistic competence, the native speaker's reliance on linguistic intuition and creativity, and then be able to test the results against actual samples of the language.

Transformationalists and Descriptivists

Transformationalists differ from descriptivists in several ways.

  • They first study the underlying language system, defining competence in terms of the rules a mature speaker follows in producing and understanding sentences.
  • They also differ in that transformational analysis assumes that all languages are basically similar in the deep, underlying structure, and aims to discover linguistic universals among the sentences of all languages.
  • They state that there are two levels for each sentence: a deep structure which represents the meaning, and a surface structure which represents the sound.
  • One of their main contributions was to show formally the relationship of sentences which were alike, for example, active and passive forms which are related in that both are derived from the same deep structure.

The Advantages of Transformational Grammar

Transformationalists hold that rules should generate structural descriptions for all the grammatical sentences of a language, and for no ungrammatical ones. Their work has also helped to overcome the lengthy rules of the descriptivists including their determination to concentrate on the gathering of vast quantities of the data of a target language.

Chomsky's Contribution

Although there have been substantial changes in Chomsky's system for a transformational-generative grammar over the years since it was first proposed, his contribution is seen as important in the discipline of linguistics and Chomsky himself is seen as an important system-builder. In the light of what had gone before over many centuries, he constructed a more complete picture of the nature of language and of the language-user.

Prescriptive Grammars
Prescriptive Grammars | Source


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • BlossomSB profile imageAUTHOR

      Bronwen Scott-Branagan 

      7 years ago from Victoria, Australia

      always exploring: Thank you for your encouraging comments.

      tireless traveller: I know what you mean. Those trees!

      Eiddwen: Thank you, Eddy. There are always so many interesting things to learn about and language is something that we almost all use to communicate with, so it's interesting to look at the different ways some people have striven to understand it.

      Michael-Milec: I'm glad you enjoyed it. Actually linguistics is about studying to understand how all languages are made and used for communication. To me, to be able to communicate is the important thing; being perfect in a language's grammar definitely comes second.

    • Michael-Milec profile image


      7 years ago

      Hi BlossomsB,


      Great and enjoyable read, including the comments.

      Even with a to a degree understanding due to English language no being my native, this article is very educational. My determination is continue to learn , regardless when and where start has occurred. One day will just begin to emerge...

      Up & useful.

      Be blessed .

    • Eiddwen profile image


      7 years ago from Wales

      This is so interesting Blossom and you have certainly done your homework. I am finding myself reading different topics to what I have been used to .

      I think it's a better late than never for me to educate myself further and this hub is certainly one great lesson.

      Thank you for sharing and I vote up,across and share.


    • tirelesstraveler profile image

      Judy Specht 

      7 years ago from California

      Chomsky drove me crazy in school. He still drives me crazy he's just 34 years older. Still a nice hub.

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Richert 

      7 years ago from Southern Illinois

      Blossom your topics are always interesting and educational. Thank you for sharing with us...

    • BlossomSB profile imageAUTHOR

      Bronwen Scott-Branagan 

      7 years ago from Victoria, Australia

      Seckin Esen: Thank you for your comment and vote.

      CurrentScience303: I'm not sure what your comment has to do with transformational-generative grammar, but thanks anyway.

    • profile image


      7 years ago from HighPoint, N.C.

      Chomsky is influenced too greatly via his peers {"Cultural Zionism"}, much as Albert Einstein was {he supported Cultural Zionism, yet didn't believe in any Hebrew God(s). Einstein was more an adherent to Spinoza's God (i.e. "energy")}. It's odd that Chumsky {having a Jewish Cultural Agenda}: NEVER mentions the Scandinavian Countries (who all, just so happen to have populations of people who are primarily Atheist/Anti-theist, are of the utmost progressive societies in the modern 1st world, possess some of the grandest incentives for Scientific Progress {Nobel Prices}, have the Lowest Crime Rates in the world, of the Cleanest Environments, .... any oh yeah, do I have to mention, those people are of what one could label "Aryan/Pagan" heritage?!! People fears this sort of information being brought forth for various reasons: One being: the Vast Majority of the Earth's Population are NOT of North-Western Euro-descent // Another Prominent Reason is it's too "secular" of culture {non-religious}, and it's "scary" for many people to witness how these Scandinavians are able to be of the Utmost Progressive, while the rest of the world continues with their unrest/wars in the name of the GREATEST FORM OF POPULATION CONTROL: "Abraham Religion" (i.e. Christianity, Islam, Judaism). I'm here {along with the works of Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, Dan Dennett}, to help bring this knowledge to the rest of the 1st world's ignorant citizens. - HOW 'BOUT THAT 'UN!?!!

    • Seckin Esen profile image

      Seckin Esen 

      7 years ago from Ankara, Turkey

      Great hub. Voted up.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)