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Ernest Hemingway Biography
Ernest Hemingway is one of the best known writers of the twentieth-century. During his life he wrote seven novels, and six collections of short stories; he is best known for his unique writing style of economy and understatement; also, he is known for such novels as "A Farewell to Arms", "For Whom the Bell Tolls", and "The Old Man and the Sea". He was an avid adventurer, outdoors man, and fisherman.
Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park , Illinois to Clarence and Grace Hemingway; his father was a physician and his mother a classical musician; both parents were well educated and respected in their community. From an early age, under the instruction of his father, young Ernest was taught to hunt, fish and appreciate the outdoors until his father became a recluse around his twelfth birthday. From 1913 to 1917 Hemingway attended High School at Oak Park and River Forest; his grades in English were good, and he and his sister performed in the school orchestra for two years; Ernest participated in a number of sports including boxing, track, and football. It was during his high school years Hemingway begun to develop his writing skills; during his junior high school year, he helped to write and edit the school's newspaper and yearbook; like other famous writers, Hemingway worked as a journalist before becoming a novelist.
World War One
When he graduated from High School in 1917, Hemingway originally wanted to join the military, but his father forbid him from joining. Instead, Hemingway accepted a job as a reporter with the Kansas City Star. On the day he left for Kansas, his father went with him to the train station; Years later, Hemingway would remember his departure from Illinois and the mixed feelings that he had; consequently, he would write about his feelings in the novel "For Whom the Bell Tolls." It was during his stay in Kansas that Hemingway matured and learned many lessons of life; also, the writing experience he received while working as a reporter would form the foundation of his professional writing career years later. Although he worked for the Kansas City Star less than eight months, young Ernest became bored and longed to join the fighting in Europe. In April of 1918, and against his father's wishes, Hemingway tried to enlist in the US Army and was rejected for medical reasons; he then enlist in the Red Cross Ambulance Corps and left for Italy. On July of 1918, while on the front lines delivering chocolate and cigarettes to the men, he was hit by mortar fire; despite his wounds, Hemingway was able to carry an Italian soldier to safety. For this act of bravery, Hemingway was given the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery. While he was in the Milan hospital, he fell in love with Agnes von Kurowsky. Initially she didn't take him seriously, but in time they planned to marry. In December 1918 Hemingway was released from the Ambulance Corps, and in January 1919 he was back home. During their separation, Agnes decided to marry an Italian officer instead of Ernest. He was devastated, and it haunted him for years; so much so, Hemingway wrote about his relationship with Agnes in the novel "A Farewell To Arms."
After taking a few months to rest and catch up on his fishing, Hemingway moved to Toronto late in 1919 to write for the Toronto Star Weekly, and to act as a foreign correspondent. During the fall of 1920, Ernest moved to Chicago for a short period while he was still writing articles for Toronto Star. In Chicago, Hemingway was working as assistant editor; during this time, he met Hadley Richardson. She was eight years his senior; after a few months dating, Hadley and Ernest decided to marry. With plans of a honeymoon in Europe, a close friend Sherwood Anderson convinced them to visit Paris. Ernest Hemingway married Hadley in September 1921; two months later on the advice of Anderson, Ernest became a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star, and the couple moved to Paris. In preparation for Hemingway's trip to Paris, Sherwood Anderson wrote a letter of introduction for Ernest to give to Gertrude Stein and other writers. Gertrude Stein was Hemingway's mentor for a while; she introduced him to writers in her circle. Ernest became a regular attender at Stein's gatherings; during these gatherings Ernest met young upcoming artist such as Pablo Picasso. and Joan Miro. However, as time went on the relationship between him and Stein deteriorated as differences in literary thought caused conflict. When Stein wasn't able to mentor Hemingway, Ezra Pound stepped in. Hemingway and Pound met in February 1922, and the two became good friends; though Hemingway Ezra Pound recognized, and mentored, a talented writer. In March of 1922, Hemingway was introduced to James Joyce; the two became good friends, and were often seen drinking and discussing literary topics. During his time in Paris, Hemingway submitted over 85 articles to the Toronto Star on various subjects such as War, Bull Fighting and Trout fishing in Europe. Later in early 1923, because Hadley was pregnant, Ernest and Hadley returned to Toronto, where John was born on October 10, 1923. While Hemingway was away, his first book was published; a few months later a second book "our time" , was published. The Hemingway family returned to Paris in January 1924; soon after returning from Toronto, Hemingway helped Ford Madox Ford edit The Transatlantic Review. This book contained writings of Ezra Pound, John Dos Passos, Gertrude Stein, and Ernest Hemingway. During the summer of 1925, the Hemingway family went on their annual trip to Pamplona for festival; during this visit Hemingway was inspired for his first novel, "The Sun Also Rises." As he was writing and revising the book their marriage begun to fall apart. During the spring of 1926 Hadley learned of his affair with Pauline Pfeffer; Later in the fall 1926, Hadley requested a divorce. The couple were divorced in January 1927; Ernest married Pauline Pfeiffer in May of 1927. Hemingway's new wife Pfeffer wanted to have her child in America; so the couple left Paris for the United States in 1928.
Ernest and Pauline traveled to to Kansas City; here their son Patrick was born in June of 1928; after the birth the Hemingway's traveled to various destinations. In the fall 1928, when the family decided to travel to Florida, Hemingway received a telegram saying his father committed suicide. During this time, Hemingway continued work on "A Farewell to Arms"; although it was finished in summer, he delayed publishing it to make additional refinements; finally when the book was published in September 1929, the book had been rewritten over 16 times; once released, Hemingway's place as a writer was secure. In the 1930s the Hemingway's were spending theirs winters in Key West and summers in Wyoming. Ernest called Wyoming the most beautiful country he had seen in western United States, and the hunting was good. In Kansas City his third son, Gregory was born on November, 12 1931. Later,Pauline's uncle bought the Hemingway's a house in Key West; Ernest divided his time between writing, fishing and drinking. In 1933 Ernest and Pauline went on a safari in Africa; this trip provided information for another book "Green Hills of Africa" ; when Hemingway returned to Key West in 1934, he started work on "Green Hills of Africa"; it was later published in 1935.
Spanish Civil War
At the request of North American Newspaper Alliance, Hemingway reported on the Spanish Civil War; he arrived in Spain in March 1937. A friend and fellow journalist Martha Gellhorn, that he met in Key West in 1936, joined him in Spain. The two witnessed the bombing of Madrid; after this, Hemingway returned to Key West for a few weeks, and later in 1938 he returned to cover the battle of Ebro. In 1939, when his time in Spain was over, Ernest and Martha moved to Cuba, and short time later he divorced Pauline and married Martha. Hemingway changed his summer residence to Ketchum, Idaho and his winter residence to Cuba; It was during this time in 1939 Ernest started work on the book "For Whom the Bell Tolls" and in October 1940 it was published ; this book sold over 500,000 copies and was a triumph for Hemingway, and it was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.
World War Two
In early 1941, Martha was dispatched to China by Collier's magazine, and Hemingway went with her; to pass his time, Hemingway wrote dispatches for PM. On the eve of World War II Hemingway returned to Cuba and outfitted his boat to hunt German submarines. From June to December 1944, he was in Europe; when he arrived in Europe he met Mary Welsh; as the war went on his marriage to Martha was disintegrating; the last time they saw each other was in March 1945.
; At this point in time, Hemingway divorced Martha and married Mary
Welsh. Later in 1947, for his bravery during WWII, Hemingway was
awarded the Bronze Star. As time went on, Ernest and Mary had a series of misfortunes; Hemingway injured
himself in a car accident. Over a period of years Mary had a few broken
bones and their sons Patrick and Gregory were injured in an automobile
accident . In addition, during the 1940s many of Hemingway's literary friends he knew from his days in Paris died. Hemingway wrote the rough draft of "Old Man and the Sea" in 1951; later when published, it was a success; it made Hemingway an international celebrity, and in 1952 it earned him a Pulitzer in May 1952. A month later, on his second trip to Africa, Hemingway was seriously injured in two plane crashes. as a result of these misfortunes he was out of literary circulation for more than a year. After returning to Cuba, in October 1954, Hemingway received the Nobel Prize in Literature. As a result of the injuries he received in Africa, Hemingway was bedridden from 1956 to early 1957. Ernest spent the summer of 1959 in Spain when he wrote articles on bullfighting for Life Magazine. Alone in Spain, Hemingway's mental stability begun to fail him. The first article of "The Dangerous Summer" were published in Life Magazine in September 1960; it had good reviews. When Hemingway left Spain, he went home to Idaho.
In November 1960 Hemingway was admitted to a Clinic in Minnesota. He had
received treatment for high blood pressure and liver problems there.
He was worried the FBI was monitoring his movements, and
this was true the FBI opened a file on him during WWII. Hemingway's
eyesight was failing, and his health was poor, and his home in Cuba was
confiscated after the revolution there. A few months later in the spring of 1961, Hemingway attempted suicide; concerned for her husband Mary asked his attending physician to admit him to the Sun Valley Hospital; at her request, he was admitted in Spring of 1961; later in June 1961 he was released; a few days later Hemingway shot himself in the head. When his death was announced, the world mourned his passing. He was well known though out the world. Lastly, several of his writings were posthumous released.