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Freelance Writing Tips for Your Best Feature Articles
When writing articles or feature stories for a newspaper, magazine or an ezine, you will find that submissions go more smoothly when you follow a few rules.
Some of these guidelines don't even involve touching the keyboard. Most of them have to do with you interaction with sources of information.
One problem you might encounter, when using interview sources for your story, is having people -- the people you interview -- wanting to preview or "approve" your story before it is submitted for publication. This is a bad idea for several reasons, and it is not considered to be professional.
Legally, giving a preview, waives your rights against prior restraint, and sets a legal precedent which could compromise anything you have written before it is published.
Presumably, even a government agency could edit your words or facts, if you have previously given up your rights.
Even more likely, is that an interviewee may want to "clean up" their quotes, to the point that the language sounds stilted and unnatural (everyone's an editor).
Getting "approval" from your source gives the appearance of writing FOR that source, rather than being objective and neutral.
Going back to check with your source causes delays. Your editor has given you a deadline because the editor has a deadline. You story may be held or killed if the deadline is missed.
If an interviewee is concerned about his quotes, you might offer to read them back over the telephone, but don't give them something in writing to edit.
If you have doubts, yourself, about something you have written, it's always a good idea to check back with the source to confirm technical or sensitive details. Again, this can be done verbally.
Other things to keep in mind when writing for Newspapers, Magazines and eZines:
Do your own pre-edits.
Use spell check.
Follow grammar rules.
Stay objective. Don't write about yourself or express your personal opinions.
Be familiar with the AP Stylebook, or the particular guide used by publication you are writing for.
Many editors are willing to help you learn, but sloppiness will get your articles rejected fast.
Names are important. Double check the spelling of all names. Ask each person you interview, how their name is spelled even if it seems common. The name you think is "Sue", could be spelled Sioux or even Su. (I have actually run into both of these people.)
If you are referencing the name of a celebrity, politician, band, organization, song, etc. Check internet sources. People hate it when you get their names wrong . . . and it happens way too often.
Check your facts and don't invent tales. If you make up backstory details, or use your own assumptions -- especially about real live people-- they will come back to bite you. Not the people, the falsehoods.
Remain neutral and objective. If you are taking on the role of reporter, and interviewing a local official, for example, it is not appropriate to share your own views either in person or in writing. You are reporting their opinions and information. Even if they ask for your thoughts on their position, you should politely turn them down.
The " five W's", (Who, What, When ,Where, Why,) should all be in your article, no matter what kind of story you are writing. Sometimes there also should be a "How."
Most editors look for a "nut-graf" or a summary paragraph that concisely tells what the story is about. This doesn't have to be the lead of your story, unless it is a short news piece, but it should be somewhere near the beginning. In long stories it might be a little further down.
SOURCES: People, Documents, Statistics, Published Reports
One source is not enough for a credible article. Almost every feature article or news-related story needs at least two sources, and preferably three, to give a well-rounded view of a subject. Background information sources should be identified as coming from a particular documented source, either a person, organization, publication or website.
Using anonymous sources is usually not allowed. If such information is used, the source identity must be disclosed to, and approved by, a top editor.
If your story source is making some sort of an allegation or accusation, an opportunity for response must be given to the other side. Make sure you understand libel and slander laws.
Did you learn anything new from this article?
Getting More Opportunities by Knowing the Rules
Once you have the attention of an editor who approves of your writing style and skills, you can run a story idea past them to gauge their interest in a particular person or subject.
Editors will have to see some samples of your work , and will want you to understand the basic rules. If you convince them that your writing is good, informative, interesting and has integrity, you will have a place to sell your writing on a regular basis.
After establishing this relationship, you can approach people who are the subject of your article (or the people who know about a certain topic) by telling them that the editor of (whatever publication) is interested in their story. It will open doors to writing opportunities all around you.
Finally, don't accept gifts. The winemaker will want to give you a bottle if you write about his vineyard. The B&B owner will offer a free night's stay if you write about her lovely inn. People will offer, tickets, meals and merchandise in appreciation for the attention you are bringing to them and their business. Sometimes it can be hard to turn these down, but you will have to learn to do it graciously and let them know that you appreciate the thought.
If you feel you need to eat a meal at a restaurant to give a fair review, pay for it yourself. You might seek reimbursement from the publication, especially if you have made prior arrangements and indicated to the editor that there might be some expenses involved in completing your article.
No one should be able to say that your article showed someone in a good light only because you got some kind of kickback. Don't make yourself feel obligated to any source. Don't sell your integrity and your reputation.
I learned most of this while freelancing for Sierra Gateway Neighbors and Sierra Gateway Living (Weeklies of the Fresno Bee) during a couple of years when Ruth Hill was Managing Editor. She was always helpful and encouraging, pushing me to be better. She later became a Copy Desk chief at The New York Times. Thanks, Ruth. I learned most of this from you.