Hamlet – The Melancholic Fool
Hamlet’s madness has been discussed in various contexts, beginning with the 17th century and up to the present time. Robert Burton, English scholar and vicar, may have regarded Hamlet’s lunacy as being caused by melancholia. Erasmus, the extinguished Dutch Renaissance Humanist, had a different approach, touching upon social and moral issues.
The Anatomy of Melancholy
The Greek term “melancholia” meant “sadness”, but also included the idea of mental disorders. It actually has its origin in the ancient medical theory of the four humors, which claimed that an imbalance in one or more of the four bodily fluids could and often caused diseases. Melancholia was caused by an excess in black bile, hence it adopted the meaning of “black bile”. A person whose constitution had the tendency of having black bile in excess was thought to have a melancholic disposition.
Maybe the most extensive documentation on the nature of melancholia is the “Anatomy of Melancholy” written in 1621, by Richard Burton. In his treatise, Burton describes in detail what he considered to be the causes, the symptoms and solutions for the illness. However, his work is profoundly subjective, in spite of several passages that seem to provide the reader with a genuine piece of advice. Burton himself identifies with some of the symptoms he discusses. He may not have had an actual medical research to back up his theories, but the observations he provides are the result of his personal experience and cannot be completely dismissed. W.D. Nicol quotes Burton’s definition of the affliction: “a kind of dotage without a fever, having for its ordinary companions fear and sadness, without any apparent occasion”. (Nicol 199) Among the reasons that explain a melancholic disposition he enumerates: shame, disobedience of God and religion, unhappy marriages and sexual abstinence.
Hamlet May Have Suffered From Humoral Imbalance
In a description of the melancholic behavior, we can almost recognize the portrait of Hamlet: “he is dull, heavy, lazy, restless, unapt to go about any business” (see Robert Burton, “Anatomy of Melancholy”) Hamlet’s antic disposition can be a case of humoral imbalance. Just like his contemporaries, Shakespeare believed in the connection between the physiological processes of the body and the four humors. The dominant theory of medicine was, in fact, derived from Galen of Pergamon’s studies. Galen was a surgeon who wrote comprehensively about ancient Greek medicinal knowledge, incorporating the works of Hippocrates and other physicians. The physiological aspects of the four humors were tightly linked to the psychology of the individual. Melancholy had an essential role in the proper functioning of the body. It served to feed the spleen and prevent the blood from becoming too thin.
Laurentius, a prominent physician from the 17th century, describes a case of a man with a dangerous excess in melancholy: “out of heart, fearful, and trembling. He is afraid of everything (...) suspicious, solitaire” (Holland, “Hamlet-A Humoral Diagnosis”) Judging by those symptoms, the prince of Denmark suffers from a severe humoral imbalance. Hamlet is “out of heart”, others can’t help but notice that he does not resemble his old self “th’exterior nor the inward man resembles what it was” (Shakespeare, Hamlet 2.2.7). Both his actions and his physical appearance seem to belong to another man. In his encounter with Ophelia, he is “fearfull and trembling”, he is pale, “his knees knocking each other” (Shakespeare, Hamlet 2.1.80). Moreover, Ophelia observes that the look in his eyes is that of a man who has been “loosed out of hell/ To speak of horrors”. (Shakespeare, Hamlet 184.108.40.206) The impression is so strong, that we tend to believe that Hamlet is not feigning madness, but has truly fallen victim of melancholia.
Hamlet does not sleep well, the “watchfulness” consumes him. He tries to explain his distress to Horatio: “Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting/ That would not let me sleep”. (Shakespeare, Hamlet 5.2.4) When confessing to his friend, he is honest, so the problem he experiences is assumed to be genuine. Horatio is concerned to see how Hamlet’s state “forget unto itself a thousand false and vain imaginations” (Holland, “Hamlet-A Humoral Dignosis”) Therefore, Horatio’s thoughts can be regarded as an argument in favor of the humoral imbalance.
All through the play, Hamlet appears as a sad individual, permanently tormented by something. At one point, he forgets about the mission of avenging his father, and contemplates suicide. As Burton states, melancholy fits “continue not, but come and go” (Schoenfeldt 25) Hamlet soon renounces his suicidal thoughts and embarks once again on his vengeance quest.
Hamlet pretending to be mad
Fluctuations in behavior are a sign of melancholic disturbance. Sometimes Hamlet speaks in a calm voice, although he is gloomy and sad. Other times his speech is chaotic and resembles the ramblings of a madman: “I humbly thank you well, well, well” (Shakespeare, Hamlet 3.1.92) Montaigne, who studied a condition similar to melancholia observed: “The force of extreme sadness inevitably stuns the whole of our soul, impeding her freedom of action”. It may thus be said that the prince, shocked by his father’s murder, and his mother’s betrayal, finds himself paralyzed, unable to act upon his desires. Hamlet is seized by melancholia and sadness, the moment he finds about the monstrous deed. In Hamlet, there is a mixture of grief and geniality, which leads to inaction and confused thoughts. Hamlet is unable to identify the source of his loss of mirth, the earth is to him a “sterile promontory”, yet he can cleverly choose his words, his mind is agile. He enters and exits the “coat” of melancholia, making it hard for the critics to place a certain label on his “antic disposition”. Melancholia was itself mysterious and unpredictable. There is no doubt about Hamlet’s “studious nature” and wit, but these throw him in a state of madness.
Another aspect of Hamlet’s melancholy is related to love, which is one of the main causes of this ailment. Hamlet can be attributed what Burton calls “love melancholia”. In Shakespeare’s days, love was regarded as a sickness itself, having similar symptoms to melancholia. In the famous scene with Ophelia, Hamlet’s feigned madness is but a step away from real madness. His diseased insistence upon the girl’s womanhood echoes his own obsession with chastity and perversion. His love for Ophelia is stained by the improper union of Gertrude and Claudius. The fault he finds in his mother is projected onto Ophelia and women in general: “Frailty, thy name is woman”. (Shakespeare, Hamlet 1.2.146) Polonius believes him mad of love, failing to grasp the message hiding in Hamlet’s gibberish. He is, nonetheless, right about one thing: Hamlet sees love distortedly, which enhances the seriousness of his condition.
Which do you think is the cause of Hamlet's madness?
Different Shades of Folly
In Erasmus’s philosophy, the most appropriate term that describes madness is “folly”, which actually encompasses madness. As Foucault observes, for Erasmus, madness has ceased to be perceived as divine due to its satirical nature. The Humanist writer intends to mock the flaws of humanity and society. (Foucault 26) In the beginning of “The Praise of Folly”, Folly is presented as bearing a great significance, because of its ancestry. She is the child of Youth and Plutus, the greatest of all gods. She is nursed by Drunkenness and Ignorance, and her attendants include: forgetfulness, intemperance, laziness, self-love and sleep. (Foucault 24) These are the most common flaws that mar human nature.
If we look at Shakespeare’s tragedy in Erasmus’s terms, Hamlet’s behavior may be understood in different ways. On the one hand, all grand accomplishments depend upon Folly. Hamlet’s quest has the purpose of avenging his father’s death and restoring the throne’s honor. Thus, the quest for vengeance is a noble one. On the other hand, while undertaking this mission, Hamlet defies moral and social norms. Therefore, his actions may be regarded as foolish. Social rules and authority cancel individual freedom, and for this reason they are accompanied by Folly, which is a form of impunity for free-thinkers like Hamlet. The young man rails against the follies of his time. Hamlet criticizes “the law’s delay” (Shakespeare, Hamlet 220.127.116.11) the “insolence of office” and “disprized love” (18.104.22.168) these are “the whips and scorns” (22.214.171.124) of a time characterized by injustice, rudeness of the authorities and devalued feelings. When contemplating Yorick’s skull, Hamlet expresses his disgust at the inconsistent preoccupations that women engage in: “let her paint an inch thick” (Shakespeare, Hamlet 5.1.329.184-5)
However, Hamlet is not a fool, but merely playing the fool. The sarcastic pleasure he takes in pretending to be out of his mind is attached to the hope of restoring Denmark’s old prestige by avenging his father. He enjoys mocking the hypocrisy of those whom he used to trust (Rosencrantz and Guildenstern) or whose position in society demands his respect, such as Polonius.
Folly – an Indicator of Genius?
Folly absolves madness of moral evil. (Dowdeswell “Overview of Erasmus”) The minds are not corrupted by sins and rubbed of reason. Bad actions do not necessarily involve losing one’s mind, because both good and evil reside within humans. Often, things considered irrational are simply another side of the coin that has to be comprehended differently, due to its uncommon character. For Erasmus, real prudence consists in rash behavior and requires playing the part you are given on the “stage of life.” Hamlet’s awkward behavior is not irrational if analyzed in the context of a bigger plan.
He is a loner who spends most of his time pondering on the meanings of life. His “otherness” creates a barrier that separates him from the shallow majority. According to Erasmus, all men of genius are fools, but wisdom does not signify happiness. On the contrary, it is a burden, as these men are often marginalized and misunderstood. Hamlet’s subtleties cannot be grasped, not even by cultivated Polonius, because he lacks the prince’s geniality. Hamlet intends to expose the rotten Denmark lurking behind inconsistent desires and false pretenses. He hides his satisfaction in a clever display of witty words. He can anticipate Polonius’s thoughts and realizes the man’s weakness and the inability to understand his soul. From this point of view, Hamlet is superior to the old, learned man, and the knowledge of this thought gives him pleasure and pride. Consequently, the prince is perceived as a danger to himself and others. Claudius and Gertrude are so afraid of him, that they send a messenger to talk to him instead of discussing the matter face to face. Hamlet is eventually banished – which symbolizes his social alienation.
- Shakespeare, William, and G. R. Hibbard. The Oxford Shakespeare: "Hamlet" Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks, 1998.
- Nicole, W D. "Robert Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy." Post Graduate Medical Journal (1948): 199-206. Web. 7 Mar. 2010.
- Holland, Sarah. "Hamlet: A Humoral Diagnosis." Dec. 1996. Web. 25 May 2010.
- Schoenfeldt, Michael Carl. Bodies and Selves in Early Modern England: Physiology and Inwardness in Spenser, Shakespeare, Herbert, and Milton. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.
- Foucault, Michel, and Richard Howard. Madness and Civilization: a History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. London: Routledge, 2002.
- Dowdeswell, Krista. "Overview of Erasmus' "The Praise of Folly"" Utoronto.ca. Web. 29 May 2010.