Jute is a natural fiber popularly known as the golden fiber. It is one of the cheapest and the strongest of all natural fibers and considered as fiber of the future. Jute is second only to cotton in world's production of textile fibers. India, Bangladesh, China and Thailand are the leading producers of Jute. It is also produced in southwest Asia and Brazil. The jute fiber is also known as Pat, kosta, Nalita, Bimli or Mesta (kenaf).
Jute is a rainy season crop, sown from March to May according to rainfall and type of land. It is harvested from June to September depending upon whether the swings are early or late.
Climate and Soils
Jute requires a warm and humid climate with temperature between 24° C to 37° C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful. The new gray alluvial soil of good depth, receiving salt from annual floods, is best for jute. Flow ever jute is grown widely in sandy loam and clay loam.
Jute is harvested any time between 120 days to 150 days when the flowers have been shed, early harvesting gives good healthy fibers. The plant from 8 to 12 feet high are cut with stickles at or close the ground level. In flooded land, plants are up rooted. The harvested plants are left in field for 3 days for the leaves to shed.
The stems are then made up into bundles for steeping in water. Steeping is carried out immediately after harvest.
Jute fibers after extraction is graded by Kutcha Balers as :
Top - Very strong fibres, good lusture and colour.
Middle - Strong fibre and average colour and lusture.
Bottom - Sound fibre, medium strength.
B-Bottom - Sound fibre, medium strength, not suitable for higher grades.
C-Bottom - Medium strength fibre, any colour.
X-Bottom - Weak ha jute.
Raw jute is further classified for trading and for manufacture into jute products on jute mills on the bases of length, strength, fineness, lusture and colour.
White jute is available in the following 8 grades as:
W-1, W-2, W-3, W-4, W-5, W-6, W-7, W-8.
Tossa jute is available in 8 grades as :
TD-1, TD-2, TD-3, TD-4, TD-5, TD-6, TD-7, TD-8
Mesta jute is available in 6 grades - quality wise
M-1, M-2, M-3, M-4, M-5, M-6
Other gradation of raw jute for trading region wise are as follows :
Assam - Assam -1 to Assam - 8
Jungli - Jungli - 1 to Jungli - 8
Bimali - Bimali -1 to Bimali - 8
Basic Jute products
Basic Jute products fabrics produced in jute mills in India are of standard constructions classified as the following :
1) Hessian Cloth
2) Sacking Cloth
3) Jute Yarn and Twines
4) D. W. Tarpaulin
7) Hydrocarbon Free Jute Cloth
Jute Processing Chart
Geotextiles are polymer fabrics used in the construction of roads, drains, harbour works, and breakwaters, and for land reclamation and many other civil engineering purposes .
The geotextiles market requires bulk quantities of material. Warp-knitted weft-insertion geotextiles offer the following advantages when compared to woven geotextiles:
- Strength-for-strength, they are lighter than woven geotextiles using the same yarn.This makes for easier handling and laying on site; thus transport and labour costs are less in real terms.
- Knitted geotextiles have exceptional tear strength. Additional strength can be designed and built-in to the weft direction such that a bi-axial high tensile, high strength warp/weft geotextile becomes a reality; e.g. 500kNm warp and 500k Nm weft.
- Knitted geotextiles can incorporate an additional fabric to form a true composite geotextile, the fabric being simply knitted-in.
- The individual yarns in the warp knitted weft-insertion geotextile are straight when incorporated, so they are able to take-up the strain immediately on loading. Those in woven geotextiles are interlaced.
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