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Literary Devices: Meanings and Examples

Updated on June 19, 2013

Literary Devices

The English language comprises many literary devices that add richness and life to phrases and expressions. In our daily lives we encounter literary devices in poems, stories, newspapers, plays, songs, movies and even in our very own conversations.

This article defines the most common literary devices, and gives examples of each.

 

ALLEGORY

An allegory is a device used to represent an idea, principle or meaning, which can be presented in literary form, such as a poem or novel; or in a visual form such as a painting or drawing.

As a literary device, an allegory is defined as an “extended metaphor”, or “symbolic representation”. Very often an allegoric story or play illustrates an idea or moral principle in which objects take on symbolic meaning.

Allegory example
Allegory example

ALLITERATION

Alliteration is the repetition of the first syllables of a series of words and/ or phrases. Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal.

Alliteration can be broken down into two groups:

Assonance

Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds but not consonant sounds.

Assonance example
Assonance example

Consonance

Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds by not vowel sounds.

Consonance definition
Consonance definition

ALLUSION

An allusion is a figure of speech that makes a reference to, representation of a place, historical event, literary work, myth, or work of art. Allusions can be direct references or implications.

Allusion example
Allusion example

In the first example above, the sentence alludes to Achilles, the warrior of Greek mythology, who could only be harmed if something hit his heel. (i.e. Achilles’ only weakness was his heel)

ANALOGY

An analogy is a comparison that is made between two things that are in some way/ ways similar. An analogy is often used to help explain something or make it easier to understand

Analogy example
Analogy example

CLIMAX

The turning point of the action in a story, play or plot is referred to as the climax.

The climax represents the point at which the story gets exciting and more alive. In some stories there may be several points that can be arguably called the climatic points.

Climax example
Climax example

HYPERBOLE

A hyperbole is a figure of speech in which an overstatement or exaggeration occurs.

Often used in poetry or in casual speech, hyperboles are usually used to create emphasis or effect.

Hyperbole example
Hyperbole example

IRONY

Irony is incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs.

Verbal Irony

Ironic statements (verbal irony) typically imply a meaning that is opposite to the literal meaning.

Sarcasm is a form of verbal irony.

Verbal irony example
Verbal irony example

Situational Irony

A situation is ironic if actions taken have an effect exactly opposite from what was intended or expected.

Situational irony example
Situational irony example

METAPHOR

A metaphor is a comparison in which one thing is said to be another. The words “like” and “as” are not used in metaphors.

Metaphor example
Metaphor example

ONOMATOEPIA

Onomatopoeia is the formation of a word that imitates or suggests the sound that it represents.

Onomatoepia example
Onomatoepia example

OXYMORON

An oxymoron is figure of speech that combines contradictory terms.

Oxymoron example
Oxymoron example

PERSONIFICATION

Personification is a figure of speech where something nonhuman is given the characteristics of a human.

Personification example
Personification example

PUN (also called PARANOMASIA)

A pun is a play on words wherein one word is used to convey two meanings at the same time. Puns are often intended for a humorous or rhetorical effect.

Pun example
Pun example

SIMILE

A simile is a figure of speech that compares two unlike quantities by employing the words “like”, “as”, or “than”.

Simile example
Simile example

The following video illustrates excellent examples of literary devices that can be found in songs.

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      angel 5 years ago

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      thanks 4 the info!! its a lot of help... =p

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    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 5 years ago from Boston, MA

      You're most welcome Aryayash!

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      a good colectoin u have saved me by 20 marks

    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 5 years ago from Boston, MA

      Glad I can help. :)

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    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 5 years ago from Boston, MA

      Vedasree: I am happy to be able to assist. Take care.

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      Volina 4 years ago

      Thank you so much!

    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 4 years ago from Boston, MA

      I am glad to be able to help Volina! You're welcome.

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      ItsGiYo! 4 years ago

      Awesome info.. definition and examples. Thanks Alot!

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      thnks thts rily helpful

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    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 4 years ago from Boston, MA

      I am happy to help :)

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      Chanel 4 years ago

      Thanks for the meanings info!! I hope I can do well in my literature paper later!!!

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      thanks got an A+ on literature paper

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      cool thx

    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 4 years ago from Boston, MA

      You're most welcome everyone! Always glad to help!

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      thnxxx........

    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 4 years ago from Boston, MA

      You're welcomed everyone! Happy to help!

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      thanx

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      really good article

    • gis_r07 profile image
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      gis_r07 4 years ago from Boston, MA

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      Thanks this really helps no I'm not being ironic

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      I have trouble understanding literary devices. Thanks for the explanations.

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      yes i have now assignment in english

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