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Passive Voice with Detailed Explanation

Updated on December 21, 2015
Passive Voice
Passive Voice | Source

Passive Voice: Introduction & Definition

First of all, it is mandatory to know the definition of the word voice. In traditional grammar, voice shows as to whether the subject of the verb performs the action or it receives the action of the verb. Traditionally, Passive Voice is a kind of a sentence or a clause, wherein the subject of the sentence or the agent receives the action of the verb. In Passive Voice, the subject is passive. That is why; it is called Passive Voice.

Active Voice is opposite to Passive Voice, wherein the subject of the verb or the agent performs the action. Subject is the doer, while object instead of subject receives the action of the verb.

Key Terminology

Transitive Verb: A transitive verb is also called an action verb. It is a verb, which requires direct object to complete the meaning of the sentence. Direct object is an object, which directly receives the action of the verb. For example:

  • She kicks a ball.
  • He plays cricket.
  • You write a book.

The verbs in the above-mentioned sentences are transitive verbs, while the objects i.e., ball, cricket and book are direct objects.

Intransitive Verbs: An intransitive verb is a verb, which does not require any object. They complete the meaning of the sentence without any object. For example:

  • She is sleeping.
  • He is running.
  • It seems he is asleep.

Transitive verbs can be changed into Passive Voice, while intransitive verbs cannot be changed into Passive Voice.

PV: Passive Voice

AV: Active Voice

Basic Rules

Following are the basic rules for converting an active voice sentence into passive voice:

  • Object of the active voice sentence is changed into subject in passive voice.
  • Subject of the active voice sentence is changed into object in passive voice.
  • Verb of the active voice is changed into 3rd form of the verb in passive voice.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in passive voice.

Following changes are occurred in pronouns in Passive Voice:

Changes In Pronouns

Pronouns
Changed Into
He
Him
She
Her
It
It
We
Us
You
You
They
Them
Passive Voice
Passive Voice | Source

Must Watch: Passive Voice

Present Simple/Present Indefinite Tense

Every tense consists of five different kinds of sentences:

  • Affirmative Sentences
  • Negative Sentences
  • Interrogative Sentences
  • Negative-Interrogative Sentences
  • WH-Sentences

Converting Present Simple Tense into passive voice is very easy. Look at the following examples:

  • He writes a letter.
  • She sings a song.

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Object of the active voice sentence is changed into subject in passive voice.
  • Subject of the active voice sentence is changed into object in passive voice.
  • Verb of the active voice is changed into 3rd form of the verb in passive voice.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the verb.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in passive voice.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Auxiliary Verb+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Now have a look at the following examples:

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He writes a letter.
A letter is written by him.
She sings a song.
A song is sung by her.
I play cricket.
Cricket is played by me.
They buy books in the market.
Books are bought by them in the market.
You eat apples.
Apples are eaten by you.
Passive Voice
Passive Voice | Source

Negative Sentences

I am pretty sure that you might have come to know how to convert Present Simple Affirmative Sentences into Passive Voice. Now, it is very easy to convert negative sentences into Passive Voice.

Basis Rules

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the active voice is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the verb.
  • Not is added after auxiliary verbs in negative sentences.
  • Does Not and Do Not are omitted in PV.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Auxiliary Verb+ Not+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Now have a look at the following examples:

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He doesn’t write a letter.
A letter is not written by him.
She doesn’t sing a song.
A song is not sung by her.
I don’t play cricket.
Cricket is not played by me.
They don’t buy books in the market.
Books are not bought by them in the market.
You don’t eat apples.
Apples are not eaten by you.

Poll

Which Passive Voice is in Present Simple Tense?

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Interrogative Sentences

To convert interrogative sentences into Passive Voice, just follow the following rules:

Basis Rules

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the active voice is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the subject of the PV sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Does & Do are omitted in PV.

Passive Voice Formula

Auxiliary Verb + Object of Active Voice+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?


Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Does he write a letter?
Is a letter written by him?
Does she sing a song?
Is a song sung by her?
Do I play cricket?
Is Cricket played by me?
Do they buy books in the market?
Are books bought by them in the market?
Do you eat apples?
Are apples eaten by you?

Negative-Interrogative Sentences

To convert Negative-Interrogative sentences into Passive Voice, just follow the following rules:

Basis Rules

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the subject of the PV sentence.
  • Not is added after the subject of the PV sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Does & Do are omitted in PV.

Passive Voice Formula

Auxiliary Verb + Object of Active Voice+ Not+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Look at the following examples:

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Does he not write a letter?
Is a letter not written by him?
Does she not sing a song?
Is a song not sung by her?
Do I not play cricket?
Is Cricket not played by me?
Do they not buy books in the market?
Are books not bought by them in the market?
Do you not eat apples?
Are apples not eaten by you?

WH-Sentences

Sentences, which starts with who, how, which, when, who, where or whom are called wh-sentences. Look at the following examples:

  • Who does write a letter?
  • When do you eat apples?

To convert such like sentences, follow the following rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the subject of the PV sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Does & Do are omitted in PV.
  • Who is changed in By Whom.

Passive Voice Formula

WH (Word)+Auxiliary Verb + Object of Active Voice+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Look at the following examples:

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
When does he eat his lunch?
When is his lunch eaten by him?
Where do they play cricket?
Where is cricket played by them?
What books they buy in the market?
What books are bought by them in the market?
Which umbrella do you use?
Which umbrella is used by you?
Who does write a letter?
By whom is a letter written?
How to does she sing a song?
How is a song sung by her?

Present Continuous Tense

It is very easy to form passive voice of Present Continuous Tense. Just follow the following rules:

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the verb.
  • Being added after auxiliary verb in PV sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Auxiliary Verb+ Being + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Now have a look at the following examples:

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He is writing a letter.
A letter is being written by him.
She is singing a song.
A song is being sung by her.
I am playing cricket.
Cricket is being played by me.
They are buying books in the market.
Books are being bought by them in the market.
You are eating apples.
Apples are being eaten by you.
Passive Voice
Passive Voice | Source

Negative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the verb.
  • Not is added between auxiliary verb and Being.
  • Being added after auxiliary verb in PV.sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Auxiliary Verb + Not+ Being + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Now have a look at the following examples:

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He is not writing a letter.
A letter is not being written by him.
She is not singing a song.
A song is not being sung by her.
I am not playing cricket.
Cricket is not being played by me.
They are not buying books in the market.
Books are not being bought by them in the market.
You are not eating apples.
Apples are not being eaten by you.

Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added at the very start of the sentence.
  • Being added before the object of the active voice in PV sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Auxiliary Verb + Object of Active Voice + Being + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Is he writing a letter?
Is a letter being written by him?
Is she singing a song?
Is a song being sung by her.?
Am I playing cricket?
Is cricket being played by me?
Are they buying books in the market?
Are books being bought by them in the market?
Are you eating apples?
Are apples being eaten by you?

Negative-Interrogative Sentences

To convert Negative-Interrogative sentences into Passive Voice, just follow the following rules:

Basis Rules

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added at the very start of the sentence.
  • Not is added before Being in PV sentence.
  • Being added before the object of the AV in PV sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Auxiliary Verb + Object of Active Voice + Not + Being + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Is he not writing a letter?
Is a letter not being written by him?
Is she not singing a song?
Is a song not being sung by her.?
Am I not playing cricket?
Is cricket not being played by me?
Are they not buying books in the market?
Are books not being bought by them in the market?
Are you not eating apples?
Are apples not being eaten by you?

WH-Sentences

Sentences, which starts with who, how, which, when, who, where or whom are called wh-sentences. Look at the following examples:

  • Who is writing a letter?
  • Where are you playing cricket?

To convert such like sentences, follow the following rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • Auxiliary Verb i.e., is, am or are is added before the subject of the PV sentence.
  • Being is added after auxiliary verb in PV sentence.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Who is changed into By Whom.

Passive Voice Formula

WH (Word) +Auxiliary Verb + Object of Active Voice+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Where are they playing cricket?
Where is cricket being played by them?
Which book are they buying in the market?
Which books are being bought by them in the market?
Who is writing a letter?
By whom is a letter being written?
How is she singing a song?
How is a song being sung by her?
What are you writing?
What is being written by you?

Present Perfect Tense

General Rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in passive voice.

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Has Been or Have Been are added before the main verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Has/Have Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He has written a letter.
A letter has been written by him.
She has sung a song.
A song has been sung by her.
I have played cricket.
Cricket has been played by me.
They have bought books in the market.
Books have been bought by them in the market.
You have eaten apples.
Apples have been eaten by you.

Negative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Not is added after has or have in negative sentences.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Has or Have + Not+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He has not written a letter.
A letter has not been written by him.
She has not sung a song.
A song has not been sung by her.
I have not played cricket.
Cricket has not been played by me.
They have not bought books in the market.
Books have not been bought by them in the market.
You have not eaten apples.
Apples have not been eaten by you.

Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Has or Have are added before the subject in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Has or Have + Object of Active Voice+ Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Active Voice
Has he written a letter?
Has a letter been written by him?
Has she sung a song?
Has a song been sung by her?
Have I played cricket?
Has cricket been played by me?
Have they bought books in the market?
Have books been bought by them in the market?
Have you eaten apples?
Have apples eaten by you?

Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Has or Have are added before the subject in PV.
  • Not is added after the subject of the PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Has or Have + Object of Active Voice+ Not+ Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Has he not written a letter?
Has a letter not been written by him?
Has she not sung a song?
Has a song not been sung by her?
Have I not played cricket?
Has cricket not been played by me?
Have they not bought books in the market?
Have books not been bought by them in the market?
Have you not eaten apples?
Have apples not eaten by you?

WH-Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Has or Have is added after Wh-Word.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Does & Do are omitted in PV.
  • Who is changed in By Whom.

Passive Voice Formula

WH (Word)+Has or Have + Object of Active Voice+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
When has he eaten his lunch?
When has his lunch been eaten?
Where have they played cricket?
Where has cricket been played by them?
What books have they bought in the market?
What books have been bought by them in the market?
Which umbrella have you used?
Which umbrella has been used by you?
Who has written a letter?
By whom has a letter been written?
How has she sung a song?
How has a song been sung by her?

Past Indefinite Tense/Past Simple Tense

General Rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.
  • Was or Were is added after the subject in PV.

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Was or Were is added after the subject in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Was/Were + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He wrote a letter.
A letter was written by him.
She sang a song.
A song was sung by her.
I played cricket.
Cricket was played by me.
They bought books in the market.
Books were bought by them in the market.
You ate apples.
Apples were eaten by you.

Negative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Not is added after Was or Were in negative sentences.
  • Did Not is omitted in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Was/Were + Not+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive voice
He did not write a letter.
A letter was not written by him.
She did not sing a song.
A song was not sung by her.
I did not play cricket.
Cricket was not played by me.
They did not buy books in the market.
Books were not bought by them in the market.
You did not eat apples.
Apples were not eaten by you.

Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Was or Were is added at the beginning of the PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Was/Were + Object of Active Voice+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Did he write a letter?
Was a letter written by him?
Did she sing a song?
Was a song sung by her?
Did I play cricket?
Was cricket played by me?
Did they buy books in the market?
Were books bought by them in the market?
Did you eat apples?
Were apples eaten by you?

Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Was or Were is added at the beginning of the PV.
  • Not is added before the main verb of the PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Was/Were + Object of Active Voice + Not+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Did he not write a letter?
Was a letter not written by him?
Did she not sing a song?
Was a song not sung by her?
Did I not play cricket?
Was cricket not played by me?
Did they buy books in the market?
Were books not bought by them in the market?
Did you not eat apples?
Were apples not eaten by you?

WH-Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Was or Were is added after Wh-Word.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Did is omitted in PV.
  • Who is changed into By Whom.

Passive Voice Formula

WH (Word)+Was/Were + Object of Active Voice+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
When did he write a letter?
When was a letter written by him?
Where did they play cricket?
Where was cricket played by them?
What books did they buy in the market?
What books were bought by them in the market?
Which umbrella did you use?
Which umbrella was used by you?
Who did write a letter?
By whom was a letter written?
How did he sing a song?
How a song was sung by him?

Past Continuous Tense

General Rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Was Being or Were Being are added before the main verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Was/Were+ Being+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He was writing a letter.
A letter was being written by him.
She was singing a song.
A song was being sung by her.
I was playing cricket.
Cricket was being played by me.
They were buying books in the market.
Books were being bought by them in the market.
You were eating apples.
Apples were being eaten by you.

Negative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Not is added after was or were in negative sentences.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Was or Were+ Not+ Being+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He was not writing a letter.
A letter was not being written by him.
She was not singing a song.
A song was not being sung by her.
I was not playing cricket.
Cricket was not being played by me.
They were not buying books in the market.
Books were not being bought by them in the market.
You were not eating apples.
Apples were not being eaten by you.

Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Was or Were are added before the subject in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Was or Were+ Object of Active Voice+ Being+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Was he writing a letter?
Was a letter being written by him?
Was she singing a song?
Was a song being sung by her?
Was I playing cricket?
Was cricket being played by me?
Were they buying books in the market?
Were books being bought by them in the market?
Were you eating apples?
Were apples being eaten by you?

Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Was or Were are added before the subject in PV.
  • Not is added after the subject of the PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Was or Were + Object of Active Voice+ Not+ Being+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Was he not writing a letter?
Was a letter not being written by him?
Was she not singing a song?
Was a song not being sung by her?
Was I not playing cricket?
Was cricket not being played by me?
Were they not buying books in the market?
Were books not being bought by them in the market?
Were you not eating apples?
Were apples not being eaten by you?

WH-Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Was or Were is added after Wh-Word.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Who is changed in By Whom.

Passive Voice Formula

WH (Word)+ Was or Were + Object of Active Voice+ Being + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
When was he writing a book?
When was a book being written by him?
Where were they playing cricket?
Where was cricket being played by them?
What books were they buying in the market?
What books were being bought by them in the market?
Which umbrella were you using?
Which umbrella was being used by you?
Who was writing a letter?
By whom was a letter being written?
How was she singing a song?
How was a song being sung by her?

Past Continuous Tense

General Rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Had & Been are added before the main verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Had+ Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He had written a letter.
A letter had been written by him.
She had sung a song.
A song had been sung by her.
I had played cricket.
Cricket had been played by me.
They had bought books in the market.
Books had been bought by them in the market.
You had eaten apples.
Apples had been eaten by you.

Negative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Not is added after Had in negative sentences.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Had+ Not+ Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He had not written a letter.
A letter had not been written by him.
She had not sung a song.
A song had not been sung by her.
I had not played cricket.
Cricket had not been played by me.
They had not bought books in the market.
Books had not been bought by them in the market.
You had not eaten apples.
Apples had not been eaten by you.

Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Had is added before the subject in passive voice.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Had+ Object of Active Voice+ Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Had he written a letter?
Had a letter been written by him?
Had she sung a song?
Had a song been sung by her?
Had I played cricket?
Had cricket been played by me?
Had they bought books in the market?
Had books been bought by them in the market?
Had you eaten apples?
Had apples been eaten by you?

Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Had is added before the subject in PV.
  • Not is added after the subject of the PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Had + Object of Active Voice+ Not+ Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Had he not written a letter?
Had a letter not been written by him?
Had she not sung a song?
Had a song not been sung by her?
Had I not played cricket?
Had cricket not been played by me?
Had they not bought books in the market?
Had books not been bought by them in the market?
Had you not eaten apples?
Had apples not been eaten by you?

WH-Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Had is added after Wh-Word.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Who is changed in By Whom.

Passive Voice Formula

WH (Word)+ Had + Object of Active Voice+ Been + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Passive Voice
Passive Voice
Who had closed the door?
By whom had the door been closed?
Which books had you read?
Which books had been read by you?
How had he solved the problem?
How had the problem been solved by him?
When had they composed the book?
When had the book been composed by them?
What books had you bought?
What books had been bought by you?

Future Indefinite Tense

General Rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the AV is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in passive voice.

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Shall be or Will be are added before the main verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Shall/Will + Be+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He will write a letter.
A letter will be written by him.
She will sing a song.
A song will be sung by her.
I shall play cricket.
Cricket will be played by me.
They will buy books in the market.
Books will be bought by them in the market.
You will eat apples.
Apples will be eaten by you.

Negative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Not is added after Shall or Will in negative sentences.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Shall/Will+ Not + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He will not write a letter.
A letter will not be written by him.
She will not sing a song.
A song will not be sung by her.
I shall not play cricket.
Cricket will not be played by me.
They will not buy books in the market.
Books will not be bought by them in the market.
You will not eat apples.
Apples will not be eaten by you.

Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Shall or Will is added before the subject in passive voice.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Shall/Will+ Object of Active Voice+ Be+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Will he write a letter?
Will a letter be written by him?
Will she sing a song?
Will a song be sung by her?
Shall I play cricket?
Will cricket be played by me?
Will they buy books in the market?
Will books be bought by them in the market?
Will you eat apples?
Will apples be eaten by you?

Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Shall or Will is added before the subject in PV.
  • Not is added after the subject of the PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Shall or Will+ Object of Active Voice+ Not+ Be+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
 
Will he not write a letter?
Will a letter not be written by him?
 
Will she not sing a song?
Will a song not be sung by her?
 
Shall I not play cricket?
Will cricket not be played by me?
 
Will they not buy books in the market?
Will books not be bought by them in the market?
 
Will you not eat apples?
Will apples not be eaten by you?
 

WH-Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Shall or Will is added after Wh-Word.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.
  • Who is changed in By Whom.

Passive Voice Formula

WH (Word)+ Shall or Will + Object of Active Voice+ Be + Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
When will he write a book?
When will a book be written by him?
Where will they play cricket?
Where will cricket be played by them?
What books will they buy in the market?
What books will be bought by them in the market?
Which umbrella will you use?
Which umbrella will be used by you?
Who will write a letter?
By whom will a letter be written?
How will she pass the exam?
How will the exam be passed by her?

Future Perfect Tense

General Rules:

  • Object of the AV sentence is changed into subject in PV.
  • Subject of the AV sentence is changed into object in PV.
  • Verb of the active voice is changed into 3rd form of the verb in PV.
  • By is added after every 3rd form of verb in PV.

Affirmative Sentences

Basic Rules:

  • Shall Have or Will Have are added before the main verb in PV.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Shall/Will + Have + Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He will have written a letter.
A letter will have been written by him.
She will have sung a song.
A song will have been sung by her.
I shall have played cricket.
Cricket will have been played by me.
They will have bought books in the market.
Books will have been bought by them in the market.
You will have eaten apples.
Apples will have been eaten by you.

Negative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Not is added after Shall or Will in negative sentences.

Passive Voice Formula:

Object of Active Voice+ Shall/Will+ Not + Have + Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
He will not have written a letter.
A letter will not have been written by him.
She will not have sung a song.
A song will not have been sung by her.
I shall not have played cricket.
Cricket will not have been played by me.
They will not have bought books in the market.
Books will not have been bought by them in the market.
You will not have eaten apples.
Apples will not have been eaten by you.

Interrogative Sentences

Basis Rules

  • Shall or Will is added before the subject in PV.
  • Sign of Interrogation is added at the end of every sentence.

Passive Voice Formula

Shall/Will+ Object of Active Voice+ Have + Been+ Verb (3rd) +by+ Subject of Active Voice?

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Will he have written a letter?
Will a letter have been written by him?
Will she have sung a song?
Will a song have been sung by her?
Shall I have played cricket?
Will cricket have been played by me?
Will they have bought books in the market?
Will books have been bought by them in the market?
Will you have eaten apples?
Will apples have been eaten by you?

Imperative Sentences

General Rules:

  • Every sentence is started with Let.
  • Object of the active voice sentence added after Let in passive voice.
  • Be is added after Object in Passive Voice.
  • Verb of the active voice is changed into 3rd form of the verb in passive voice.

Passive Voice Formula:

Let+ Object + Be+ Verb (3rd).

Examples:

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Open the door.
Let the door be opened.
Close the door.
Let the door be closed.
Arrest him.
Let him be arrested.
Don’t ring the bell.
Don’t let the bell be rung.
Don’t beat him.
Let him not be beaten.

© 2014 Muhammad Rafiq

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    • Rafiq23 profile image
      Author

      Muhammad Rafiq 3 years ago from Pakistan

      Thanks Mel Carriere for stopping by and commenting! In my opinion, novel is a realistic picture of life and we know that we use passive voice very rarely in our daily life. That's why, Passive Voice should be avoided in fiction so that to give it a realistic touch.

    • Mel Carriere profile image

      Mel Carriere 3 years ago from San Diego California

      I have always heard that fiction writers should stay away from the passive voice. What is your opinion on this? Very thorough hub.

    • Rafiq23 profile image
      Author

      Muhammad Rafiq 3 years ago from Pakistan

      Thanks FlourishAnyway for your comments, I agree with you. Have a nice time.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      When I was in academia, passive voice was often preferred in writing up research reports of data and findings. However, in the business world, active voice is where it's at.

    • Rafiq23 profile image
      Author

      Muhammad Rafiq 3 years ago from Pakistan

      Thanks missirupp for your inpunts. I agree with you but some times we need it. That is why; we have to master it.

    • Rafiq23 profile image
      Author

      Muhammad Rafiq 3 years ago from Pakistan

      Thanks Bill for your comments. Remain blessed.

    • profile image

      missirupp 3 years ago

      I struggle with this also. The passive voice makes a piece of writing very hard to read. Why do we even have a passive voice?

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      I am constantly battling this particular writing demon. Thanks for the reminder to stay active.