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The Animal Farm and the Russian October Revolution
The story in the Animal Farm represents the Russian October Revolution, and the era that came afterwards which was called Communism. There are some direct similarities which will be described below.
Napoleon (Stalin) was a really smart ruler. Following the ideals and the ideas of a political system called "Animalism" (Marxism), which was made up, worked out, and made popular by an old and dieing pig called by the name of "Major" (Karl Marx and Vladimir IIyich Lenin).He organized meetings where he and the rest of the animals worked out every single bit of their revolution (October Revolution). But it happened so unexpected and so quick that after it was over, they didn't even believe that they were free.
Since the pigs (the Bolsheviks) were the smartest, they "ruled" from the very begining, right after the Revolution, especally Snowball (Trotsky) and Napoleon (Stalin), but mostly, because Snowball was expelled almost right after the Battle of Cowshed (the allied invasion of 1918-19). At first Napoleon's rule seemed only representative, but step by step he broke all the seven commandments, changing the beautiful ideology into an absolute monarchy, by lies which the stupid animals accepted without any question as expalnations for what the pigs, but especially Napoleon did.
Read the book!
Orwell's Animal Farm is a clearly satirical piece of art of the October Revolution and Communism.