The English Sonnet
Shakespeare Helped Make the English Sonnet Popular
A sonnet is a classic form of poetry with fourteen lines, a specific rhyme scheme and a relatively rigid thematic structure. The English sonnet is a specific type of sonnet, also called the Elizabethan or the Shakespearean sonnet because it was made popular by poet and playwright William Shakespeare. Some poets continue to use the sonnet form to this day. If you need to write an English sonnet, follow the guidance on form, meter, rhyme and theme in this article.
The first sonnet was developed by the Italian poet Petrarch in the 1300s. In the 1500s, the Italian sonnet was translated into English, but because English and Italian are different languages with different rhythms, the meter was changed to better accommodate the English language. Shakespeare wrote many English sonnets, some of which mocked the themes that appeared frequently in Petrarchan sonnets. It's a good idea to take a look at some classic English sonnets to get an idea of structure and form. Sonnet 130 which begins, "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun" is a popular Shakespearean sonnet because it makes fun of typical themes in Petrarchan sonnets.
A good way to start writing a sonnet is to consider what theme you might want to discuss or illuminate in your poem. The structure of an English sonnet is intricately related to the theme. The bulk of the poem -- the first twelve lines -- sets up the problem or theme of the poem. The final two lines -- the couplet -- acts as a kind of epiphany or surprise by resolving the problem or by seeing the theme in a new and interesting light, so it's also a good idea to also consider what "change" might occur in the final lines of your poem.
Lines & Rhymes
An English sonnet has fourteen lines split up into three quatrains and a couplet. A quatrain is a stanza with four lines. A stanza is comparable to a verse in a song -- it's a set of lines that are considered a unit in a poem. A couplet is a set of two rhyming lines of verse that are right next to each other. The lines have the following rhyme structure: abab, cdcd, efef, gg. Each different letter represents a different rhyme in the last word of the line. This means that the rhymes alternate lines in each stanza and, as by definition of a couplet, the final two lines rhyme. So, you will need seven sets of rhyming words to complete your fourteen lines. One way to begin your sonnet is to think of your theme along with some sets of rhyming words related to that theme.
Finally, you have to write the actual lines of your poem -- but they must be written with a limited amount of syllables and with a particular meter. The English sonnet is written in a meter called iambic pentameter. An "iamb" is a metrical "foot" consisting of one unstressed, or short, syllable and one stressed, or long, syllable. An iambic line has a rhythm like this: daDUM, daDUM, daDUM.
In the word pentameter, "penta-" means five. So, a line of iambic pentameter has five iambs. The opening line of the Declaration of Independence is written in iambic meter: "We HOLD these TRUTHS to BE self-EViDENT..." In simpler terms, this means that when you write an English sonnet, each line should have ten syllables that alternate between being unstressed and stressed -- meaning that the lines should have the following rhythm: daDUM daDUM daDUM daDUM daDUM.
My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun (Sonnet 130)
Here is an example of a classic English sonnet, written by Shakespeare himself. As noted above, the poem is famous in part because Shakespeare is cleverly mocking his contemporaries. He's tired of hearing poetic cliches comparing a lover's eyes to the sun or her red lips to coral.
The final two stanzas take the typical turn of an English sonnet, moving beyond the scope of the first twelve lines and offering a revelation.
My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress when she walks treads on the ground.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.
I shall forget you presently (Sonnet XI)
Looking for more English sonnet examples? Shakespeare wasn't the only one to write them! Edna St. Vincent Millay, a popular poet of the early 1900s, wrote in many different traditional forms. She often wrote about love or affairs, as she does here.
Notice the trademarks of a Shakespearean sonnet in this poem: fourteen lines, the abab rhyme structure, and the turn in the final couplet.
I shall forget you presently, my dear,
So make the most of this, your little day,
Your little month, your little half a year,
Ere I forget, or die, or move away,
And we are done forever; by and by
I shall forget you, as I said, but now,
If you entreat me with your loveliest lie
I will protest you with my favorite vow.
I would indeed that love were longer-lived,
And oaths were not so brittle as they are,
But so it is, and nature has contrived
To struggle on without a break thus far,—
Whether or not we find what we are seeking
Is idle, biologically speaking.
Want More Help with Sonnets? Check out these links.
- Sonnet Examples from the Academy of American Poets
Shakespeare isn't the only person to rock sonnets -- lots of contemporary poets do, too!
- The Canon: Sonnet Rules
A list of rules for writing a sonnet, from the 1917 book "The English Sonnet."
- A Short History of the Sonnet
A quick history of the sonnet from the Folger Shakespeare Library
- Poetic Form: Sonnet
More information about the sonnet, from the Academy of American Poets.
- Shakespearean Sonnet Basics
What you need to know about the style and structure of Shakespeare's sonnets.