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The birth of Nigeria
History Of Nigeria
Nigeria is known for its diversified natural resources and population. This is the reason it is referred to the giant of Africa. It's made up of 36 states and each of the states is rich in Natural Resources. Before discovery oil, our major occupation was mainly fishing and farming otherwise known as Agriculture.
Nigeria is located in Western region of Africa. Nigeria is made of many tribes and ethnicity. Each region in Nigeria have common languages as the means of communication. But the common means of communication is English translated to "pidgin English". Nigeria is divided into 4 ethnic groups; The North, South, East and West and these groups are subdivided into 3 major languages; Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. These are the major languages dominating Nigeria. But the lingual franca is the English Language.
We were colonised by the great Britain and this has affected most of our ethical belief, tradition, religion and civilisation, even our political system.
Before the arrival of the Great Britain into Nigeria soil, Nigerians were practising what is known as the Africa Traditional religion which is known as the ancestral worship. This was what was practiced until Christianity was introduced by our colonial masters and later Islam.
Before the arrival of our colonial master, 'Nigeria' was not known as Nigeria. We had a name. Nigeria was known as the Niger Basin because it was being ruled by the Royal Niger Company . From 1886 to 1899 much of the country was ruled by the Royal Niger Company. The British ruled Nigeria from January 1, 1914 to October 1, 1960 under the leadership of Frederick Lagarde where most Nigerians where taken to UK for slavery. The currency then was called the British West Africa pounds from 1914 to 1958 and was later changed to Nigeria Pounds in 1958.
During the reign of the British Empire, Nigeria was refer to as the colonial Nigeria. The name Nigeria was born at the point where River Niger meets river Benue. This was the inspiration behind the naked Nigeria.
In 1990, the Southern Protectotoarte and the Northern Protectorate of Nigeria was passed from the Royal Niger Company to the great Britain. By the influence of Sir Frederick Lagarde, the two territories were amalgamated as the colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.
The Nigeria capital under the British Government was Lagos and was later changed to Abuja years after independence. Then the colonial rule lasted precisely from 1900 to 1960.
Like other countries, some States in the country assistance have flags but the National flag was designed by a 24-year old student known as Taiwo Michael Akinkunmi. It was designed with the green white green, where the green stands for resourcefulness and fertility of its kind and white stands for peace and transparency. But let me ask, what happened to our land, what is the course of the constant erosion and land pollution and bush burning. What is the cause of our forest reserves and animal reserves. Things has changed and grown worse since we became a Republican nation.
Along the design of the flag is the Motto of Nigeria which is Peace, Strength and Unity. This is the basic elements of a true independent nation.
Economic Development of Nigeria
After the colonial rule, Nigeria became an independent nation. Nigeria made first appearance on the international arena when she joined the United Nation Assembly and became the 99th member. Nigeria also became a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Nigeria was represented actively on many committees and commissions of the United Nation.
Nigeria Government started making budget on Education, Health care services and other forms of budgets which promoted growth in the region. Our major source of revenue at that time after independence was Agriculture. We haven't discovered oil then. Nigeria was also trading these agricultural produce to other neighbouring nations. Fishing and farming were the major source of livelihoods and it was mainly subsistence.
Different leaders came out with their budgetary policies but most of them failed to meet those guidelines. This was a major concern for economic growth.
Economically, we were also producing cash crops like cocoa, timber, cotton and even leather from animal skin. Her food crops were mainly lettuce, rice, maize, cassava, palm fruits and so on and even fishery. These were the source of income for the country at that time.
When they discovered crude oil, agricultural activities started declining. Nobody wanted to farm anymore, almost everybody were running into the oil industry.
When crude oil was discovered, Nigeria became the biggest and highest producer of oil in West Africa. We became very rich and powerful. Due to the great and vast wealth crude oil was fetching into the country’s treasury, the leaders and the general population shifted their radar toward oil production as the major source of generating revenue for the country. People left their farms and agriculture became a thing of the past. At the initial stages, the value of naira was relatively high in the open market.
The naira started losing its strength when Nigeria started imported virtually everything as small as tooth pick.
At the early stage of democracy when Former President Olusegun Obasanjo reigned in power, he initiated a program known as operation feed the nation where a land in Ogun State was massively cultivated with high sophisticated equipment. They call the farm the ota farm. It practices various forms of mechanised farming and employed young graduate at different levels and regions. The Ota farm priduces large quantities of food crops. Nigeria had a lot in their barns and storage and we were selling these food products and cash products to Other Africa Nations and International community. Poverty was nowhere near the country as every homes were able to provideo food for their family. The standard of living was okay but not perfect anyway.
The Obasanjo administration also introduced telecommunication systems into the country and that is what we are enjoying today. In those times, we depended more on letters to post office but with the emergence of GSM, messages could be relayed in seconds wirelessly to any part of the world and you can hear the voices of your loved words and see them via video chat even when you are far off from each other.
As time passes by and as we stared having more leaders in power, corruption started. Most of the leaders that came into power came for embezzlement and to enrich themselves with the revenue generated from crude oil export. Most of them lauder the money to personal accounts in foreign countries and some of them divides it among themselves. Nigerians became broke because money that where suppose to be used for development was being siphoned to personal accounts in foreign countries. As the word goes ' An Hungry man is an angry man.' Education and health care centre were left unattended and workers salary could not be paid. Young graduates seeking jobs but was all in vain as there were little or no job opportunities.
The only way you can get a job is when you are connected with someone in civil service or corridor of power. Private companies are not willing to employ young inexperienced youth. This was where all vices of corruption started. Arm robbery, fighting, stealing, killing and militancy became a serious matter of concern.
When President Muhammadu Buhari took over leadership, the country became so broke that there was no money in the government reserves as most of the reserves were used by corrupt leaders for their selfish ambition by the previous political party. The price of petroleum products dropped from about $140 to $30 per barrel which cannot run a population spanning over 180 million.
The new government released budget and initiatives to alleviate poverty in the country and to decisively fight corrupt leaders and practises and regain those looted funds back to the country for infrastructural and economic development.
Due to the recent oil drop in price, government is making plans on how to reduce imports and increase increase export of our local and industrial production.
With the new Administration, there is a new hope for Nigeria and Nigerians believe that this is the change they yearn for.
The issue of national security is the number priority of this present administration and they are doing great job in that aspect of providing adequate securities to the Nigeria citizen. At the thought of this, the popular saying comes into play: "At the end of every tunnel is a great light". At this point, Nigerians have something to hope for.
Though there are lots of work to be done in the aspect of electricity, portable water, health care centres and facilities, standard and level of education, good roads, industrial development and infrastructural development and provision of basic amenities, Nigerians cannot stop hoping that one day, our pride and dignity as the giant of Africa will be restored back and all those involved in moving Nigeria backward with their corrupt practices will be brought to book and will face the full weight of the law.