ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Books, Literature, and Writing

Theatre of the Absurd

Updated on August 1, 2016

Introduction

Theatre of the Absurd is a term that was coined by Martin Esslin in 1961 in his book by the same name. In this book, he associated this term with four dramatists – Samuel Beckett (Irish), Eugene Ionesco (Romanian), Arthur Adamov (Russian), and Jean Genet (French) – who displayed similar attitudes toward the predicament of the modern man in their plays.

The philosophical foundation of the Theatre of the Absurd

Man’s predicament arises from his position in this absurd universe, in which, try as he may, his plan to impose an order is constantly thwarted. He continually searches for a living purpose, but it is all in vain. Man has been placed in a universe that has lost its centre, and has become disjointed, purposeless, and absurd. One must note that Theatre of the Absurd evolved post the absurdity of the Second World War, during which time Camus wrote “The Myth of Sisyphus” (1942), a major philosophical influence on this theatre. In this landmark essay, Camus explains the consciousness of absurd, which is also a philosophical paradigm of Theatre of the Absurd.

Theatre of the Absurd as the theatre of situation

Theatre of the Absurd flourished in Europe and America in the 1950s and 1960s. Various dramatists associated with Theatre of the Absurd met with reactions of bewilderment by the audience when their plays were first staged. It was because conventional criticism could not be applied to these plays. Yet they appealed to the masses. It is true that these plays do not tell a coherent story to communicate any moral or social lessons. Also, in these plays, dramatic suspense is not created so much by questions such as “What will happen next?” than by the simple question “What is happening?” To approach the meaning of the play, the spectator is challenged by the dramatist to formulate such a question. Moreover, Theatre of the Absurd is a theatre of situation; it strips man of the accidental circumstances of social position or historical context, and confronts him with the basic situation of existence, such as waiting between birth and death (as witnessed in Beckett’s Waiting for Godot). It makes the audience aware of man’s precarious and mysterious position in an arbitrary universe where nothing makes sense. Therefore, many plays in Theatre of the Absurd have a circular structure in which time is elastic, and fact and fantasy intermingle. Just like Camus’ myth of Sisyphus, man too undergoes meaningless routine tasks that are of no ultimate purpose.

A scene from Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot

Source

Characterization in the Theatre of the Absurd

The purposelessness of human experience is transformed on stage through the depiction of characters’ motiveless actions, which are largely incomprehensible. It is hard to identify with such characters. So the audience sees what happens to them from outside; it does not share their point of view. For this reason, these characters appear mostly comical to the audience. In fact, the figure of clown is very important in Theatre of the Absurd. But its appearance is a mere projection of the real situation of humanity that acts like a clown as it has shed all logic. Also, it is said that Theatre of the Absurd has kinship with farce. It is true that absurdist plays are mercilessly comic, until we are confronted with profound sadness in their subject-matter. Thus, Theatre of the Absurd combines laughter with horror.

Influences on the Theatre of the Absurd

Theatre of the Absurd also combines several elements from earlier aesthetic traditions – Dada, Expressionism, and Surrealism – to create both the content and the form of the play. Even as it breaks away from the naturalistic theatre, it also borrows from older theatrical traditions the elements of verbal nonsense, juggling, and miming. In fact Ionesco incorporated several grotesque elements from Alfred Jarry’s plays into his plays. A more twentieth-century influence on Theatre of the Absurd is that of the silent movies depicting bizarre situations through gestures. These gestures become quintessential in Theatre of the Absurd as they use all the above-mentioned elements to break away from logical connections and communicate the arbitrariness of life. The importance of all these theatrical devices is also accentuated by the fact that language is no longer the predominant medium of communicating the complete truth. So it appears more and more in contradiction to reality. Therefore, instead of using language as argument or discursive speech, Theatre of the Absurd uses language of concrete poetic images. In this way, Theatre of the Absurd is a significant attempt at re-evaluating language that is easily played around by the media of our times to appropriate truth.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Theatre of the Absurd becomes an important development in the aesthetics of modern times, reflecting the loss of modern man cut off from exterior comfort. Its influence can be felt in the liberal theatre of our time. Owing to this, it is often said that we are children of Godot.

Lucky's famous monologue in Beckett's Waiting for Godot

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)