Poetic Devices: Tools for Poetry Commentary
Poems, Doggerel, Versification
In the cosmos of poetry, there are genuine poems, and then there are pieces that masquerade as poems.
Such false "poems" are labeled "doggerel." Some writers make the distinction between a genuine poem and doggerel by labeling the latter "verse." I will refer to the really bad "poems" as "doggerel," and to those that do not quite make poem status as "versification."
The following offers a glossary of additional terms that I use in poetry commentary:
Most Common Poetric Devices
Metaphor: creates a comparison of unlike entities in order to dramatize or portray the sensed reality of the subject. One of the best metaphors in poetry is Robert Frost's "leaves got up in a coil and hissed / Blindly struck at my knee and missed."
Image: any sense perceived snapshot. Therefore, there are visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, olfactory images. Example: Robert Browning's "A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch / And blue spurt of a lighted match" offers images of sound, sight, and smell.
Stanzas and Other Poetic Units
The "stanza" is the traditional unit within classic poems. It may consist of any number of lines and still be considered a stanza unit. The following numerical clusters of lines may appear in classic poems:
Couplet: two lines
Tercet: three lines
Quatrain: four lines
Cinquain: five lines
Sestet: six lines, usually second stanza or part of a Petrarchan sonnet
Septet (or Septain): seven lines
Octave: eight lines, usually the first stanza or part of a Petrarchan sonnet
Stanzas with lines from 9 forward are named according to the Latin term for the number; for example the Latin term for the number 9 is "novem"; thus the name for a stanza with 9 lines is "novtet." The Latin term for the number 10 is "decem"; thus the name for a stanza with 10 lines is "dectet." Eleven lines is therefore "undectet," twelve "duodectet," etc.
Fortunately, stanzas are seldom extended to line numbers above eight; therefore, I have coined the terms for stanzas with lines numbering above eight:
Novtet: Nine lines
Dectet: Ten lines
Undectet: Eleven lines
Duodectet: Twelves lines
Doggerella: unit of lines in a piece of doggerel (term coined by Linda Sue Grimes)
Movement: along with "versagraph," the movement is also a basic unit of lines for a free verse poem; however, a movement may not be limited to a single unit, but may be based primarily on the content, theme, or subject of the movement. Also, the line units of a traditional stanzaic poem may be labeled "movements," if the importance of the poem is more dependent on its movements than its stanzaic units (concept created by Linda Sue Grimes)
Versagraph: traditionally expressed as a "verse paragraph"; a free verse paragraph, usually unrimed, unmetered group of lines (term coined by Linda Sue Grimes)
Rime (often spelled "rhyme)":
Cluster Rime: groups of riming words appearing along with unrimed words, AAABBBBCCDEED.
End-rime: the most common rime, usually producing a consistent rime-scheme, such as the English sonnet: ABABCDCDEFEFGG
Internal rime: a line's final word riming with a word within the line: '"While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping"
Scatter rime: appears in no definite scheme, AABCDDEFGG, but becomes apparent as it affects meaning (coined by Linda Sue Grimes)
Slant rime, near rime, off rime: pairs of words that are merely close in rime: to-day / victory, tell / still, arm / exclaim.
Classic Poetry: poetry recognized before 1920 and poems studied widely in secondary school and college classes, to be distinguished from Classical Poetry, which refers only to the poetry of antiquity: Hindu, Persian, Greek, and Roman.
Contemporary Poetry: poetry recognized after 1920, especially that of Modernism, Postmodernism, and 21st century.
Forms of Poetry
Sonnet: the most commonly employed form of poem since the early 13th century. Types of sonnets include the Italian (Petrarchan), English (Spenserian, Elizabethan or Shakespearean), American (Innovative). Also, various combinations of these sonnets exist as innovative sonnets.
Elizabethan Sonnet: Three rimed quatrains and one rimed couplet in iambic pentameter. Rime scheme is ABABCDCDEFEFGG.
Petrarchan Sonnet: One octave and one sestet. Traditional rime scheme is ABBAABBACDCDCD
American (Innovative): A fourteen line poem, often incorporating features from traditional sonnets; usually unrimed without a specific rhythmic pattern, but retains the emphatic lyrical discourse of the traditional sonnet (definition delineated and stabilized by Linda Sue Grimes)
American (Near-Sonnet): An eleven-line poem, often incorporating features from traditional sonnet, often unrimed and unrhythmed but retains the lyric intensity of traditional sonnets (term coined by Linda Sue Grimes)
Villanelle: a tightly structured 19-line poem that features only two rimes and two refrains
Versanelle: a short, usually 12 lines or fewer, narration that comments on human nature or behavior, and may employ any of the usual poetic devices (term coined by Linda Sue Grimes)
Writing About Poetry
Analysis: examines and discusses a poem in terms of its parts
Explication: explains how the poem's use of poetic devices implies its message. While the term "explicate" comes from the Latin "explicare," meaning to unfold, it is useful to think of the term "explication" as a conflation of explain + implication when referring to poetry; thus an explication explains the implications of the poetic devices used in the poem.
Critic: emphasizes the evaluation of poems
Scholar: emphasizes the research and study of poetry
Commentarian: combines the work of analysis, explication, research and evaluation to emphasize effect and meaning (concept created by Linda Sue Grimes)
Thus I consider myself primarily a commentarian as I rely on analysis, explication, scholarly research and study, in critically observing and reporting on the effects and meanings of poems.
Loose Musing: results in non-sense pieces, brain-storming left without order, free-writing that remains disorganized without the revision necessary to allow the images to impart coherent and cohesive meaning (term coined by Linda Sue Grimes)
SRF Lake Shrine, Windmill Chapel
Life Sketch of Linda Sue Grimes
The Windmill Chapel
In the temple of silence
By the lake, we sit
In stillness, meditating
In divine Bliss.
Returning to our daily minds,
We walk out into the sunshine,
And the flowers greet us.
The Literary Life
Born Linda Sue Richardson on January 7, 1946, to Bert and Helen Richardson in Richmond, Indiana, Linda Sue grew up about eight miles south of Richmond in a rustic setting near the Ohio border.
After graduating from Centerville Senior High School in Centerville, Indiana, in 1964, Linda Sue Grimes completed her baccalaureate degree with a major in German at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1967. She married Ronald Grimes on March 10, 1973.
As a writer, Grimes focuses on poetry, short fiction, politics, spirituality, and vegan/vegetarian cooking, which results in her original veggie recipes.
Although music was her first love, Grimes considers herself primarily a literary specialist as she creates her own poetry, studies the poetry and literary arts of classic writers, and writes commentaries about classic poems.
However, Grimes does continue to express her love of music by writing her own original songs, which she records, accompanying herself on guitar or keyboard. She shares her musical compositions at SOUNDCLOUD.
After completing the PhD degree in British, American, and World Literature with a cognate in Rhetoric/Composition at Ball State University in 1987, Grimes taught English composition in the English Department at BSU as a contractual assistant professor from 1987 until 1999.
Grimes has published poems in many literary journals, including Sonoma Mandala, Rattle, and The Bellingham Review. She has published three books of poems: Singing in the Silence, Command Performance, and Turtle Woman & Other Poems, and a book of fables titled Jiggery-Jee's Eden Valley Stories.
Grimes published her first cookbook in the spring of 2013, titled The Rustic Veggie-Table: 100 Vegan Recipes. She is working on a second cookbook and her fourth book of poems.
Currently, at Owlcation, Grimes (Maya Shedd Temple) posts her poetry commentaries. On LetterPile, she shares her creative writing of poems and short fiction, along with prose commentaries on each piece. She posts recipes resulting from her experimental cooking of vegan/vegetarian dishes. on Delishably. She posts her politically focused pieces at Soapboxie, and her commentaries focusing on music at Spinditty. Pieces on the writing process appear at Hobbylark.
Linda Sue Grimes has been a devotee of Paramahansa Yogananda and a member of his organization, Self-Realization Fellowship, since 1978. A Kriyaban since 1979, she has completed the four Kriya Initiations, and she continues to study the teachings and practice the yoga techniques as taught by the great spiritual leader, who is considered to be the "Father of Yoga in the West."
Grimes practices the chants taught by the guru accompanying herself on the harmonium. She serves at her local SRF Meditation Group as one of the chant leaders.
Online Literary Presence
In addition to the contributions of her literary works to Owlcation, LetterPile, and SOUNDCLOUD, Grimes also curates her original creative literary pieces at her literary home, Maya Shedd Temple, on Medium, where she features her creative writing without commentaries. Grimes also maintains an additional online presence on Facebook and Twitter.
© 2015 Linda Sue Grimes