Frankly, I don't remember being very much influenced by specific kids books, if that is what you mean by "childhood books." On the other hand, I was influenced a great deal by books from my childhood, which were not, however, childrens books.
I first started reading seriously at ten or eleven, and I started with Tarzan novels by Edgar Rice Buroughs. Of course, the television (live) show and cartoons, comic strips and comic books, and movies may have been silly presentations about the white "ape-man," or "B'wana," but the novels (as is often the case) were lenghty, comprehensive, well written and well constructed, intellectually challenging and intellectually satisfying stories of serious fantasy/action adventure literature.
Tarzan, in the novels, was a much more complex, nuanced, subtle, and therefore believable character than he was in the other methods of presentation. These books were in the "Young Adult" section of my local public library, but come to think of it, that designation "Young Adult," underrates these novels.
In my opinion, those books belong on the bookshelves with the regular adult fiction. I can also say that it was these books, from my childhood, which ignited my lifelong love of reading in general.