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Terrorism in Africa

Updated on April 9, 2018

Since the end of the Cold War, the global space in general and in Africa in particular has become increasingly confronted by the scourge of terrorism. In fact, virtually every continent has played host to such incidences. As with other security challenges, terrorism has engaged policy makers and academics in the national and international arena to debate the causes, consequences, and measures to be adopted to address the scourge.[1] Associated with this challenge is the need to develop and implement a counterterrorism strategy.[2] In view of the increasing lethality and casualty figures associated with the activities of terrorists, it is not an overstatement to assert that the scourge of terrorism has emerged as one of the fundamental security challenges confronting the international community in the 21st century,[3] and Africa in particular cannot be overlooked.

Thus, with no measure and no solution in sight, Africa, a continent known for its rich endowment of natural resources, and her people have been made to face the terrible situation of terrorism. It is no doubt that these complex problems stem from religious encumbrances, conflicts of power struggle, corruption, election rigging, economic quagmire and resource control.

African countries are gradually beginning to realize the threat of and vulnerability to terrorism differ from one continent to another, one sub-region to another and one country to another. This implies that sub-regions and countries will react differently, based on their unique perception of the threat.[5] Thus, the outcome has manifested in adoption of various measures at national and international levels against terrorism and organized crimes at various international forums and Africa is not left out of the global efforts to exorcise the scourge of terrorism.

To this effect, this paper sets to bring into limelight the web of terrorism in Africa either as a myth or reality. Much attention shall also be rendered to the examination of the factors that precipitates terrorism, revisiting the fundamentals which have been ignored by the agencies set up to curb the stigma of terrorism as well as propound strategies for covering terrorism and then conclusion.

Terrorism: Nature and Meaning

Throughout history, every terrorist has been claimed to be a freedom fighter battling against dictatorships and appealing cruelties. Before placing much emphasis on the nature of terrorism, it would be crucial to highlight and clarify some definitions of the word “terrorism” by various scholars. For a scholar like Gearson Freedman, terrorism have historically been seen as a strategic occurrence, which fluctuates according to religion, geography and culture and so cannot be rigidly defined. It has been used as an instrument by revolutionaries and nationalists and even by governments to maintain state control. Defining and understanding terrorism depends greatly on the perspective of the beholder.[6] Wilkinson goes further by seeing terrorism as a special form of political violence.[7]

The concept of terrorism is, however, a broad one in that due to its intricate nature, defining it has never been an easy task. In the past, terrorism occurred in various frameworks as crime, politics, war, propaganda and religion. Bruce Hoffman notes that terrorism is fundamentally and inherently political. With this, Hoffman defines terrorism as the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the pursuit of political change.[8] It is also ineluctably about power: the pursuit of power, the acquisition of power, and the use of power to achieve political change.[9]

However, Eqbal Ahmed, an outspoken and highly acclaimed Indian anti-colonialism scholar, noted that the “terrorist of yesterday is the hero of today and the hero of yesterday becomes the terrorist of today. This is a serious matter of the constantly changing world of images in which we have to keep our heads straight to know what terrorism is and what it is not.”[10] Ahmed went further to identify five types of terrorism which are:

Types of Terrorism

I. State terrorism

II. Religious terrorism

III. Criminal terrorism

IV. Political terrorism; and

V. Oppositional terrorism

All of which fit his sample definition of terrorism as the use of terrorizing methods of governing or resisting a government.[11] Certain features accompany acts of terrorism. First, such acts are usually violent and have political objectives. Terrorist acts exert far reaching psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victims or targets. In addition, terrorist acts are usually conducted by organized non state actors that often operate through coordinated cells. Today, the phenomenon of international terrorism has grown to become a big monster which seeks to destabilize, demoralize and paralyze the apparatus of a declared adversary, create anarchy, fear or general sense of insecurity or force individuals to carry out the wishes of the terrorists. Generally, terrorism is widely considered an assault on the fundamental principles of law, order, human rights and peaceful settlement of disputes.

However, the courses pursued by specific terror groups are in some instances adjudged to be just and defensible by adherents. This is widely demonstrated in the transformation of the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa which in the heat of the apartheid was labeled a terrorist organization by the White Supremacist regime in the country has since 1994 become the ruling political party in the country. This has given credit to the assertion that one person’s terrorist may, to another, be a liberator.[12]

Terrorism in Africa

The continent of Africa has since the last decade of the 20th century experienced growing incidents of terrorism. These incidents manifest in the forms of bombing, kidnapping, torture, murder and assassination, arson, sabotage, mysterious phone calls, hijacking, intimidation and robbery. Others include hostage taking, piracy, toxic pollution, arms smuggling, facility occupation and poisoning.[13] These acts have combined with political instability, armed conflicts, corruption, underdevelopment, poverty and diseases as well as environmental challenges to compound the security realities in the continent.

Phases of Terrorism in Africa

Terrorism in Africa has evolved over different phases. These incidents had domino effects on security across various parts of the continent.

  1. In East Africa, the history of terrorism dates back to the Mau-Mau rebellion in Kenya against British colonial policies in the country. The embassies of United States in Nairobi (Kenya) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) were attacked by terrorists affiliated to the Al Qaeda Network in August 1998. In recent times, the Al Shabab, Lord Resistance Army (LRA) and the Al Qaeda in East Africa have emerged major exporters of terrorism in the region extending terrorist aggression to various countries in the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa.[14]
  2. So far, Southern Africa as a region seem to be the most isolated from terrorist aggression in the continent. The region has however remained a transit route for terrorist and persons suspected of having terrorist tendencies. Southern Africa is also notorious for organized crimes which constitute a major source of funds for the financing of terrorism. Such criminal acts like drug trafficking, poaching and cybercrimes are recurrent occurrences in countries of the region.
  3. In North Africa, countries like Algeria and Egypt experienced devastating acts of terrorism between 1990 and 2000. Algeria remained the target of militant Islamic groups that employ terror tactics to press home their demands. Prominent among them is the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat in North Africa which marked another phase in terrorism in the continent.[15]
  4. In addition, a major epicenter of terrorist activities in West and Central Africa is Nigeria which has been confronted by acts of terrorism perpetrated by the Islamist extremist in the North East and armed militants in the Niger Delta.it is important to note that Nigeria had previously experienced a pronounced incident of terrorism in 1993 following the hijack of a Nigerian Airways plane by terrorists aligned to the Movement for the Actualisation of Democracy (MAD). Moreover, the audacity of Boko Haram became more pronounced with the introduction of suicide bombing and subsequent bombing of the Police Headquarters and the United Nations House on 18th June and 26th August 2011 respectively. The Boko Haram assaults have persisted with attacks on military, churches, security agencies and other government offices as principal targets.

Causes of Terrorism in Africa

Generally, the concept of terrorism is a complicated one the causes of which are incomprehensible. The phenomenon does not occur over night rather its underlying causes and motives mature through time. Most of the time, years of discrimination, injustice, dissatisfaction and anger of people result in terrorism.[16] The causes of terrorism are mostly multidimensional that are attributable to factors such as discrimination against minority groups, lack of opportunity for political participation and dissatisfaction of the elite. [17] Terrorism can also arise as a result of retributive measures towards the reaction of government against revolution and opposition. The major factors which cause terrorism in Africa will be discussed as follows:

Political causes

Terrorism can occur as a result of problems in the political system within a state and the counter terrorism measures adopted by government. There are numerous political causes of terrorism. One of the political factors that bring about terrorism is the illegitimate acquirement of power by government. Most African governments fail to gain access to power based on the will of the people through periodic elections. Even in African countries where period elections are held, such elections are not free and fair. In many African countries important human rights such as the right to freedom of expression and the right to association are limited. The infringement of such rights pushes the people of Africa to make use of force and terror to attain political change in their countries. Most African countries attempt to maintain security through the use of security forces. This causes negative relationships between ordinary citizens and security forces which in turn results in the loss of confidence and legitimacy of the government to the people.[18] Consequently, the lack of confidence in government leads the people to use violence against government.[19]

Socio-economic Causes

There have been hot debates among scholars on whether or not poverty causes terrorism.[20] It has been argued by some scholars that poverty does not drive individuals to be terrorists; it is rather used as an excuse to justify the evils of terrorism. For instance, Abadie claimed that the per capita income of a state is not linked to terrorism.[21] On the other hand, other scholars contended that although poverty is not a cause of terrorism by itself, it can bring about terrorism when combined with other political factors.[22]

Similarly, Yves argued that in combination with political and religious factors, the lack of basic necessities for life, education, and prospect for future, unemployment and other social inequalities can bring about dissatisfied groups of people which open a wide door for terrorists.

Collective Security: Religious, Ethnic and Cultural Divisions

Religious, ethnic and cultural divisions are the main causes of conflicts throughout Africa.[23] It also facilitates a fertile condition for radicalization, extremism and terrorism as well. Minority groups resort to acts of violence when they are denied of adequate representations in the political affairs of their country. The under representation of minority groups in political affairs brings about the marginalization and dissatisfaction of such groups. Hence, such groups may resort to violence to attain their political objectives and self determination.

Explaining Terrorist Threats and Vulnerabilities in Africa

Various reasons have been advanced as causative factors for terrorist aggressions in Africa. Some of these include such governance problematic like the incidence or perceived incidence of political tension, oppression and repression, socio-economic exploitation, deprivation and discrimination arising from inter-group consciousness based on ethnic, religious or class lines.

Others include political instability as in Mali, a lack of direction, increasing feelings of betrayal. Such failures of governance breed deep-rooted grievances against the state and throw up gullible youths for recruitment to acts of terrorism. Some of the youths had played active roles in various armed conflicts across the continent and therefore had some technical experience in the use of arms. It is reasoned that as post-conflict peace-building measures were intensified, the shortfall in the process of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Re-integration (DDR) produced willing accomplices for terrorism and transnational crimes. In addition, the failure of political leadership in post-conflict states to effectively execute the challenge of integration and reconstruction further stirred irk of opposition elites who sometimes resort to acts of terrorism and relapse to war to redress their grievances. These factors heightened security vulnerability of post-colonial states in Africa to the scourge of terrorism.[24]

Another explanation for the scourge of terrorism in Africa is the continent’s experience of colonial exploitation and domination. Colonialism mangled polities and coerced previously distinct and sometimes competing ethno-religious groups into clearly heterogeneous polities as new states. Such political clones needed an administrative system of hierarchies which often relied on effective state power. Oppositions to colonial rule were quite often met with brutal repression until the attainment of independence by these states. In post-independence Africa, the task of state-building borrowed significantly from the culture of violence inherited from the colonial past; likewise the culture of resistance. Consequently, the state relied often on force to assert its sovereignty. This fanned the ambers of armed resistance and acts of terrorism across Africa. In countries like Algeria and South Africa under the obnoxious apartheid regime, liberation movements were labeled terrorist organisations by the regimes they sought to overthrow.

Beside the incidence of colonialism, the growing concerns on the threats posed by international terrorism since the 9/11 attack on World Trade Centre (WTC) have contributed to the escalation of terrorism across Africa. The impact of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) as championed by the United States and subsequent invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban regime by US forces have forced members of the terrorist Al Qaeda Network to seek for new bases in states with weak capacities to contain their activities. The strengthening of counterterrorism regimes by various countries in Western Europe, Asia and Middle East and the implementation of the United Nations Global Counterterrorism Strategy adopted in 2006 have further encouraged terrorist organisations to shift their operation to weak and fragile states with under-governed spaces in Africa. Institutional weaknesses and huge under patrolled seashores and undergoverned land masses in these countries provided sanctuary and new operational theatres for terrorists and fighters escaping from losses in the anti terror wars in the Middle East.

Terrorist cells across Africa have exploited the vacuums created by failed states like Somalia and the inability of weak states in Africa to effectively secure their vast territories. This has heightened the vulnerabilities of the continent to terrorism. Consequently, Africa’s Sahel belt comprising of Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Central Africa Republic, Sudan, and Eritrea which is referred to as the Arc of Instability because of the scourge of armed conflicts has remained notorious for illicit movement of persons, violent extremism and the proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons.[25]

The emergence of the Boko Haram in Nigeria and its continued assault on the Nigerian State has further exposed the vulnerability of the continent to terrorism. The sect formed for the promotion of extreme Islamist ideals in Nigeria, based on the strict application of Sharia law, has continuously engaged security agencies in Nigeria with acts of terror resulting in suicide bombing of the Police Headquarters and United Nations House in Nigeria in June and August 2011. Prior to Boko Haram insurrection in Nigeria, militant groups in the Niger Delta especially the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) had adopted terrorist acts such kidnapping and hostage taking, assault on critical infrastructures, illegal oil bunkering, armed aggression and bombings to press the Nigerian government for audience in addressing the Niger Delta question.[26]

Combating the Scourge of Terrorism in Africa

A government may use both defensive and offensive strategies to fight terrorism. Offensive strategies may include retaliatory raids, subsequent bombing of terrorist facilities, group infiltration, and pre-emptive strikes. Defensive strategies include the use of metal detectors at the airports and general improvement in security networks. Meanwhile, these measures cannot be taken without a proper threat analysis. Threat analysis is a fluid and continuous process. As data for the analysis change, so do the results. Planners must adjust their plans to incorporate changes during the threat analysis. Three kinds of information are analysed to produce a valid threat analysis.[27]

  1. Intelligence and Criminal Information –this provides information on the goals, methods of operation, techniques, strategies, tactics, and targets of individuals and groups.
  2. Threat Information – identify individuals and groups involved in the planning and implementation of terrorist acts.
  3. Vulnerability Information – Identify security weaknesses and high-risk targets.[28]

Therefore, to prevent domestic terrorism, the country’s economy must be put on a sound footing with the eradication of corruption in all facets of human endeavour. Effective poverty alleviation programme devoid of rhetoric must also be put in place. This argument is predicated on the fact that deprived citizens may provide means for the implementation of terrorist act especially when sponsored by disaffected elites. Cremshaw (1981) observed that terrorism is more likely to occur precisely where mass passivity and elite dissatisfaction coincide. Therefore, good governance must be accorded high priority, as this will generate high and considerable level of affection and support for the government. The national security needs to be redefined to recognize, environmental issues, terrorism, and weapons proliferation, international health concerns, international migration, natural resources as part of the national security policy.

Lastly, condition for the elimination of terrorism must be created which further includes the institution and preservation of popular democracy, protection of life, pursuit of justice, provision of health care, education and full employment and maintenance of a sound administrative infrastructure (Sabella, 2005).

Africa-Nigeria and the Web of Terrorism: Myth or Reality?

In the words of Madunagu (2005), there is no state in the world where terrorism is absent, or new. This implies that it is common around the world. For instance, in first century Palestine, Jewish Zealots would publicly slit the throats of Romans and their collaborators; in seventh century India, the Thugee cult would ritually strangle passer-by as sacrifices to the Hindu deity Kali; and in the eleventh century Middle East, the Shiite sect known, as the Assassins would eat hashish before murdering civilian foes. However, the word 'terrorism' entered into European languages in the wake of the French revolution of 1789. Terrorism is traced to the revolutionary years (French Revolution), as it was largely by violence that governments in Paris tried to impose their radical new order on a reluctant citizenry (Walker, 2004, Ulfstein, 2003, Roberts, 2002, Crenshaw, 1981).[29] In Nigeria, however, many incidences that could be described as terrorism were acts perpetrated by the state during the colonial days and during military autocratic rule. This could be described as intra-state terrorism or state terrorism. Few could be categorized as inter-state terrorism or international terrorism. Few examples will suffice. Dele Giwa, the founding Chief Executive and Editor-in-chief of the Newswatch magazine, was assassinated, via a letter bomb on Sunday, October 19, 1986. Chief Alfred Rewane, a 79-year-old nationalist and democrat was shot dead on October 6, 1995, Kudirat Abiola (Lagos June 4, 1999) was gunned down by unknown persons and her husband, Moshood Abiola was allegedly poisoned (July 7, 1998). All these were instances of state terrorism (Madunagu, 2005). The killing of four Nigerian Security Agents by Cameroon in 1981 was an act of terror. The crash of Nigerian Air Force plane in Lagos on September 26, 1992, and the explosions at a military weapons depot in Lagos in January 2002 were all suspected acts of intra-state terrorism.[30] Another reason why Nigeria is considered to be a possible terrorist trouble spot is because of its large Muslim population and a country in which there has been a long history of religious tension; sometimes well managed, sometimes not well managed. The erroneous conception in the West is to see Islam as being synonymous with terror, not minding the conditions that precipitate terrorist activities.

Indeed, in the eye of the Western world, to say that Islam and terrorism do not go together is heretical and a betrayal to the west. This is a dangerous ignorance of religion and history. Terrorism cannot be totally reduced or explained from the perspective of religion. It is a multi-dimensional, multi-directional, multi-faceted and multi-causal issue. It is purposive and goal directed. Few examples are sufficed here. The Baader – Meinhof gang, German Terrorist group of 1960 was not religious. It is important to note that terrorism is a universal problem and there is no any nation that is free from it.[31]

Terrorism or its threat in Nigeria- state, intra-state, or international- is not only perceived but also real. It is real because all the factors that precipitate terrorism are patently present coupled with Nigeria’s recent romance with western world more especially, the United States of America. In essence, the closure of American and British Consular in July 2005 against the possible terrorist attack could not be thrown out with a wave of thought. First, Nigeria is economically and politically unstable, it is a polity characterized by ethnic tensions and religious crisis, poverty is on the high side and many Nigerians are economically deprived as a result of pandemic corruption and gross mismanagement.[32]

Conclusion

Could we have the globalized world with no discrimination and aggression? Such view of globalization requires all citizens of the world to have mutual understanding of their similarity with other humans and their need for safety. As humans of different races, religions and civilizations, it is important that we continue to learn from one another our glorious past as well as our pain. Muslims certainly carry the heaviest load since Islam has been consistently described as the epitome of radicalism, terrorism and evil religion. Such a hijacked portrayal of Islam does not accord with Islamic teaching that promulgates tolerance and understanding of other religious beliefs, languages and civilizations. In the process, it is important for Muslims to reinterpret Islamic teaching so that Muslims combat the misuse of the Quran and Hadith in the name of religion as has been done by the global terrorists. Bearing in mind that the scourge of terrorism in Africa is real and having realised that the continent faces daunting challenges in the sphere of counterterrorism, it has become imperative that measures geared at preventing radicalisation and extremism should be strengthened. This suggests that concerted efforts be made to ensure that measures conducive to the spread of terrorism are eliminated. Furthermore, African countries should further strengthen information sharing relevant to counterterrorism in the continent. It is also important to sustain measures that frustrate using African territories for the financing of terrorism.

As we have seen in this paper, terrorism is goal directed, though may be corrective, is also devastating and therefore should be controlled. Majority of the Africa countries with security challenges have been unable to tackle the issue due to corruption issues within the security infrastructure and lack of foresight to translate policy to practical deliverable action plans. It is so difficult to come across countries in Africa with an accessible and published counter terrorism strategy and as a result, since it is not people driven; it is impossible to get a successful outcome on it. Therefore, the threat of terrorism is not just perceived but real.[33]

Today, due to the inability of African leaders to tackle the growth of radicalisation in the continent; we have noticed increase in terrorist actions and increase in the number of internally displaced persons across Africa. There is urgent need for Africa countries to utilise their inner strength to improve security challenges in the continent[34]

References

[1] C. Nna-Emeka Okereke, Jennifer Iheanacho and Chikaodi Okafor, “Terrorism in Africa: Trends and Dynamics”. African Journal for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, vol.5, no 1, (2016), p.1.

[2] Anneli Botha, “Challenges in Understanding Terrorism in Africa: A Human Security Perspective”. African Security Review 17.2 Institute for Security Studies: p.29.

[3] C. Nna-Emeka Okereke, Jennifer Iheanacho and Chikaodi Okafor, “Terrorism in Africa: Trends and Dynamics”. African Journal for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, vol.5, no 1, (2016), p.3.

[4] Israel Adoba, Africa and the Ressurgence of Terrorism: Revisiting the Fundamentals. Coventry University, p.1.

[5] Anneli Botha, “Challenges in Understanding Terrorism in Africa: A Human Security Perspective”. African Security Review 17.2 Institute for Security Studies: p.29.

[6] Gearson Freedman, Superterrorism: Policy Responses (Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2002), p.10.

[7] P. Wilkinson, Terrorism versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response (London: Frank Cass, 2001), p.106.

[8] B. Hoffman, Inside Terrorism. Revised Edition (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), p.41.

[9] Howard, R.D., and Sawyer, R.L., Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding the new security environment, readings and interpretations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), p.4.

[10] E. Ahmed, “Terrorism: Theirs and Ours”. (Paper presented at the University of Colorado, Boulder, on 12th Octobeer, 1998), p.2.

[11] E. Ahmed, “Terrorism: Theirs and Ours”. (Paper presented at the University of Colorado, Boulder, on 12th Octobeer, 1998), p.5.

[12] Charles W. Kegly and Eugene R. Wittkorf, World Politics: Trend and Transformations (New York: St. Martins Press, 1981), p.418.

[13] K.E. Ekwo, Terrorism and Strategies for Combating it in Africa in the Nigerian Army Quarterly Journal, Volume 1, Numbers 2 and 3, October 2005, pp.209-210

[14] C. Nna-Emeka Okereke, Jennifer Iheanacho and Chikaodi Okafor, “Terrorism in Africa: Trends and Dynamics”. African Journal for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, vol.5, no 1, (2016), p.6.

[15] C. Nna-Emeka Okereke, Jennifer Iheanacho and Chikaodi Okafor, “Terrorism in Africa: Trends and Dynamics”. African Journal for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, vol.5, no 1, (2016), p.10.

[16]Martha Crenshaw “Causes of Terrorism” Comparative Politics (City University of New York, 1981) p- 383.

[17]Martha Crenshaw, “Causes of Terrorism” Comparative Politics (New York: City University of New York, 1981), p.383 & 284.

[18] Chinedu Yves Nwagu Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights Protection in Uganda: Preventing Wrongs without Violating Rights (LLM Thesis University of Pretoria 2009), p.12.

[19] Chinedu Yves Nwagu Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights Protection in Uganda: Preventing Wrongs without Violating Rights (LLM Thesis University of Pretoria 2009), p.12.

[20] Chinedu Yves Nwagu Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights Protection in Uganda: Preventing Wrongs without Violating Rights (LLM Thesis University of Pretoria 2009), p.12.

[21] The National Bureau of Economic Research “Does Poverty Cause Terrorism?” available at: http://www.nber.org/digest/may05/w10859.html [accessed on 04 January 2018].

[22] Joshua Keating “ Was State Senator Obama Right that Poverty Causes Terrorism” available at: http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_world_/2013/09/11/obama_s_initial_response_to_9_11_as_a_state_senator_he_argued_that_violent.html [accessed on 04 January 2018].

[23] Sam Makinda “Terrorism, counter-terrorism and norms in Africa” 2006(3) African Security Review, 3 p.18.

[24] C. Nna-Emeka Okereke, Jennifer Iheanacho and Chikaodi Okafor, “Terrorism in Africa: Trends and Dynamics”. African Journal for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, vol.5, no 1, (2016), p.13.

[25] C. Nna-Emeka Okereke, Jennifer Iheanacho and Chikaodi Okafor, “Terrorism in Africa: Trends and Dynamics”. African Journal for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, vol.5, no 1, (2016), p.14.

[26] C. Nna-Emeka Okereke, Jennifer Iheanacho and Chikaodi Okafor, “Terrorism in Africa: Trends and Dynamics”. African Journal for the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, vol.5, no 1, (2016), p.16.

[27] Sarafa I. Ogundiya and Jimoh Amzat, “Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol 10, no.2, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, (2008), p.179.

[28]Sarafa I. Ogundiya and Jimoh Amzat, “Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol 10, no.2, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, (2008), p.183.

[29] Sarafa I. Ogundiya and Jimoh Amzat, “Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol 10, no.2, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, (2008), p.178.

[30] Sarafa I. Ogundiya and Jimoh Amzat, “Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol 10, no.2, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, (2008), p.179.

[31]Sarafa I. Ogundiya and Jimoh Amzat, “Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol 10, no.2, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, (2008), p.181.

[32] Sarafa I. Ogundiya and Jimoh Amzat, “Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol 10, no.2, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, (2008), p.182.

[33] Sarafa I. Ogundiya and Jimoh Amzat, “Nigeria and the Threats of Terrorism: Myth or Reality”, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol 10, no.2, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, (2008), p.185.

[34] Temitope Olodo, Tackling Terrorism in Africa - Myth or Reality, accessed November 23, 2016. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/tackling-terrorism-africa-myth-reality-temitope-olodo

© 2018 FRANCIS CHUKWUEBUKA OKOYE

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      FRANCIS CHUKWUEBUKA OKOYE 

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