Parts of Angiosperm; Its Importance and General Characteristics
Angiosperm which is popularly known as flowering plants belongs to Phylum Angiospermophyta. The name is derived from the Latin word “Angi” which means “enclosed” and the Greek word “Sperma” which means “seed”. Angiosperm is considered the dominant form of plant life for it comprises about 230,000 known and obscure species of plants with seeds which are enclosed in a fruit. It occupies most of ecological situations and natural landscape. In tropic regions, almost two-thirds of them are rapidly exterminated by logging and other human activities.
Flowering plants have scientific classification that is divided into two classes:
- Class Magnoliopsida (Dicots) – popularly known as dicotyledons
- Class Liliopsida (Monocots) - more properly known as monocotyledons
Angiosperm have 1000 species which has economic importance and only 15 species supplied world’s food, however, there are still hundreds of them are investigated and developed. Most of the angiosperm isa great source of food for humans and other animals depends on raw materials and natural products. It includes the division of most shrubs and herbs which most of them are trees except pines, other coniferous trees and some specialized plants like succulents, parasites and aquatic types.
Parts of Angiosperm
Angiosperms are well-adapted to terrestrial habitats because of their well developed vascular tissues. They have tracheids for water transport and xylem vessels is a woody tissue that serve as a mechanical support that conducts water and inorganic salts throughout the body of higher plants. Their reproductive organs are found in their flowers, an intricate structure that is usually protected by a whorl of highly modified and attractive colored leaves while their seeds are enclosed in a fruit.
There flowers consist of a series of sepals; it is a modified leaves or bracts that is colored green. Stamen is in the third series, which is the pollen-producing male portion of the flower. On the other hand, carpel which is the innermost series is the female structure of the flower that produces the seeds and mostly fused into a structure called the pistil.
Angiosperm seed develops in the carpel which is the ovary that surrounds and protects the egg-containing the ovules. After pollination and fertilization of eggs, seeds in the ovules are developed. Seeds and ovules are not just found in angiosperm, but also in gymnosperm which is also known as “naked seed” plants like cycads, conifers and gingko.
Characteristics of Angiosperm
Angiosperms have varied structures and in order for you to learn more about their body variation we need to compare the characteristic of its stems, leaves and flowers.
a.) Nature and Size – They are higher plants either a shrub, herb or vine
b.) Arrangement on Stem- Their arrangement can be alternate, opposite or whorl.
c.) Stipules – Can be “present or absent”
d.) Type of Leaf- Their leaves structure can be considered “simple or compound”
e.) Venation- It can be either netted or parallel
Main parts of leaves are:
- Leaf blade or lamina
- Leaf stalk or petiole
f.) Attachment to stem – it can be “solitary or in cluster”
g.) Presence of floral organs- Composed of sepal, petals, stamens and pistils whether “complete or incomplete”
h.) Shape of petals- petals can be “regular or uniform” “shape and irregular”
i.) Condition of petals- it can be separate partially united or united
j.) Number of floral parts – whether in multiples of five, four or three
k.) Type of Ovary- It can be “superior or inferior”
Classification of plants according to habitat or the size and nature of the stems:
Tree- A large woody plant with a distinct single main stem or trunk, they are usually the tallest of plants. Trees are considered perennial plants because they can live for at least three years.
Shrub- A short woody plant smaller than a tree with several stems arising from or near the ground, they are also considered perennial plants, though a big difference is that shrub is shorter than trees. They can grow even in coldest and driest region on earth. The shrub can be evergreen or deciduous. Some popular shrubs are:
Herb- A soft-stemmed plant relatively short and short lived that does not develop permanent woody tissues above the ground. Herb can be annual, biennial or perennial. They are commonly known as soft-tissued angiosperm. Herbs include:
Vine- Is flexible and weak-tissued plants which have a long, slender and fast-growing shoots that creeps along the ground or climbs upright objects for support; vines use thorns, tendrils, or hook to creep and anchor to structures to maximize exposure to the rays of sunlight to strengthen their supports.