Composting Toilets...Not Just For Cabins
What Is A Composting or Waterless Toilet?
Composting, or waterless toilets have long been used in remote hunting cabins but over the last few years have begun to be considered for environmentally responsible suburban and urban homes as well. There are as many benefits to a composting toilet as there are arguments against it by the unenlightened! For many years humans have had to deal wisely with their own waste- it has only been over the last century that we have had the ability to just "flush it away" as a general population. This mentality has helped to cause some of the environmental problems we have today.
Composting toilets can be a real help to the environment; conserving water (and saving money on water bills), avoid pollutants being dispersed into waterways, and even enriching the soil!
A composting toilet can be manufactured in a number of ways. By it's very definition, a waterless toilet uses little or no water and instead, relies on bacteria to break down waste into a type of humus. The humus is sanitary because of the bacterial action, and in many countries is used on edible crops as fertilizer, although this is not legal for commercial growers in the United States. The toilet can be self contained, collecting waste in the bottom of the receptacle, or can be attached by pipeline to a larger collection area.
How Does A Composting Toilet Work?
A composting toilet that is properly maintained does not smell. This is often one of the first arguments against it and it is just not valid. Decomposition in the holding tank is achieved by biochemical interaction. Simply said, decomposing materials create a mini-environment for bacteria which digest the excrement and turn it into hygienic fertilizer in about 6 months.
There are two main types of waterless toilets.
Continuous Composting Toilet
The continuous composting toilet is a single container holding tank where the waste decomposes as it moves through the chamber and is removed as compost.
The advantages of this type are obvious. The design makes it look like a normal toilet, one which you see every day in your own bathroom. It fits easily into any bathroom design and is not so obviously something "weird".
The potential problem is that fresh waste is deposited on top of decomposed waste, effectively re-contaminating what has all ready been sanitized. The waste can get impacted and be difficult to remove however good inspection and maintenance practices will keep this problem at a minimum.
Batch Composting Toilet
Batch composting toilets consist of two containers that are alternated so that one lies "fallow" and has time to compost as the other is being actively used. Because of this the problem of re-contamination of composted materials is at a minimum.
The potential problem is that you have to remove the full container and replace it with an empty container. This type will look different from a regular toilet and will also take up more space in the bathroom.
Generally sawdust is added to the holding tank with each use. This creates the proper environment and aeration for the bacteria to thrive and digest the fecal material. If the toilet is well maintained and working properly there should be no smell, unless perhaps you have a very large family and it is 100 degrees! The compost should be removed from the container when it is sufficiently decomposed. The minimum fallow, or decomposition, time is 6 months. During that time the action of the microbes in the compost raise the temperature above 113 F which begins the sanitation process.
The containers will need to be cleaned thoroughly after they are emptied. It is a good idea to use soap and let the container dry in the sun before replacing. Be sure and follow manufacturer's directions carefully.
But Is It Legal?
Composting toilets have approval from the Public Health Department on only seven states; Iowa,Kentucky, Maine, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Vermont. The health department has a list of requirements the composting toilet must meet to maintain health standards but most of these will be automatically met by buying a commercially made composting toilet rather than making your own and following manufacturers directions carefully. Always check with your city to see if there are any permits or requirements locally,
Composting Toilets In Public
There are more and more companies using composting toilets in their quest for a greener America. The Bronx Zoo has installed a Clivus Multrum system and is now saving millions of gallons of water per year...The Island Wood School, Bainbridge Island, Wa. is using only composting toilets.
Composting toilet technology promises to have a radical impact on the environment in a positive way over the next decade. As this system becomes more popular more of our precious resource, water, will be saved and we will all only benefit from that.