Winter weather doesn't mean that you can't have fresh vegetables grown by you. You can always garden outdoors or you could garden indoors and have fresh vegetables all year round. However, its not that easy to garden so you shouldn't expect huge yields.
The biggest hurtle of growing food indoors are low light no pollinating insects and wind. However on the positive side, you are in full control of water, soil and fertility. Bugs and diseases might follow you indoors, but because its inside you will pay more attention to your garden and should attend to it before the problems get out of control.
1. You should always use good quality potting mix.
2. Plants should be sized to containers with good drainage. For example deep rooted tomatoes will need 12+ inches of soil, but shallow rooted greens only require 2-3 inches of depth.
3. Sun from the window might not be enough because the days are shorter and the light is low in the sky and its not enough for plants needs. I suggest supplementing with a garden light.
4. Don't place your pots too close to your windows, drafts and heat sources may damage them.
Best Vegetables to grow indoors:
Small carrots- they are easy to grow indoors, they need little space and mature fast. For carrots I recommend a longer container.
Hot Peppers- peppers are very sensitive to frost so growing them indoors makes it a lot easier, don't over water and make sure they have 10 hours of light per day and you will get fruit.
Lettuce- quick growing and has shallow roots, it will keep growing if you cut outer leaves and let the center grow.
Microgreens- its basically a mix of seeds. They don't need a lot of space or deep containers.
Cherry tomatoes- tomato plant seeds germinate very quickly. They need a lot of light 10 hours per day.
Well here you go basics for indoor gardening...it's actually fun and rewarding plus you get to eat homegrown veggies all year round.