CLIMATE CHANGE DUE TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND ACID RAIN
The greenhouse effect is the process in which the infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere warms the planet’s surface. The name comes from an analogy with the warming of air inside a greenhouse compared to the air outside the greenhouse. On the other hand, it can also be explained as “the greenhouse effect is the global phenomenon in which the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere is radically increasing due to the activity of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases, discovery of greenhouse effect, its concept, mechanism, sources as well as importance is discussed in a very authentic manner.
Gases of Greenhouse effect
The following are the gases which causes the greenhouse effect.
- Carbon dioxide
- Nitrous oxide
- Chloro Floro-Carbons
Greenhouse effect's Discovery
The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1829 and first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. In addition to Earth, Mars and especially Venus have green house effects.
Conceptual knowledge of greenhouse effect
Greenhouse are used to grow plants, especially in the winter season. The Greenhouses trap heat from the sun. The glass panels of the greenhouse allow light but do not allow heat from escaping. This phenomenon results in the heating up of greenhouse, much like the inside of a car parked in sunlight, and keeps the plants warm enough to live in the winter.
Mechanism of Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere behave much like the glass panes in a greenhouse. Sunlight enters the Earth’s atmosphere, passing through the blanket of greenhouse gases. As it reaches the Earth’s surface, land, water, and biosphere absorb the sunlight’s energy. Once absorbed, this energy is sent back into the atmosphere. Some of the energy passes back into space, but much of it remains trapped in the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases, causing our world to heat up.
Sources of Greenhouse Gases
There are following major sources of the greenhouse gases.
- Burning of fossil fuels, for instance coal, oil and gas provide us the greenhouse gases.
- Furnaces, which emit smoke and other pollutants
- Motor vehicles, which are responsible for emission of smoke with poisonous gases.
- Greenhouse gases are exhausted from automobiles and it is one of its main contributor.
- These gases can also be obtained from combustion of coal and wood.
- Agricultural fertilizers as well as toxic insecticides are also providing these gases.
- On the other hand, rotten plants are contributing a large amount of greenhouse gases.
- Garbage and industrial exhaust also provide these gases.
Importance of Green house effect
The importance of greenhouse effect also has greater importance which is as follows.
- If a greenhouse effect is not performed then the Earth will not be warm enough for the human being to live there.
- Without greenhouse gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth’s average temperature would be about 60o F colder.
In simple, acid rain can be defined as “The rain water which contains a large amount of poisonous acids like sulphuric acid, sulphurous acid, Nitric acid, Nitrous acid and other pollutants is known as the Acid rain. Acid rain’s causes as well as its effects are explained in the following.
Causes of the Phenomenon of Acid Rain
There are many causes of Acid rain which are explained as follows.
- Motor Vehicle exhaust
- Burning of fossil fuels like Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas which emit poisnous gases in the atmosphere.
- Industrial revolution which occurred in 1750 has caused 28% increase in the amount of Co in the atmosphere.
- Industrial exhaust contains sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and nitrous oxide has greatly contributed to the acid rain.
- A huge amount of methane is produced by agricultural practices. Rice fields produce approximately 116 million tons of methane every year.
- The men of transportation like vehicles, airplanes, ships etc. has greatly contributed towards acid rain because they utilize fuel which ultimately releases CO, CO2, nitrous oxide, lead benzene into the atmosphere, and contribute in acid rain.
Some bad effects of Acid Rain
The major effects of acid rains are explained as follows.
- It kills flora and fauna
- It damages the buildings.
- It causes skin cancers and other serious melanomas.
- It increases the acidity of the soil and render them unclutivable.
- Acid rain is so poisonous that it kills fish and other aquatic animals.
- It pollutes the water of lakes, dams, ponds and oceans.
- It causes spotting of green leaves of plants, for which the leaves fall off.
- Acid rain has damaged trees in forests of Germany, Britain and other European countries.
- Acid rain causes corrosion of metals, painted surfaces and even stone buildings and monuments.