How to Grow Colorful, Vibrant Poppies
Attractive to Hummingbirds and Butterflies
Almost everyone loves to watch a butterfly flutter around the garden, so why not try to plant flowers that will attract not only butterflies but popular hummingbirds as well? Poppies are loved by both hummingbirds and butterflies but are also attractive to the ever-important pollinating honey bee. These attractive plants will usually grow a foot tall or more, and have one bloom per stem blooming in almost every color imaginable.
Poppies are pretty tolerant of drought conditions, but they prefer well-draining soil, along with light waterings. Most are hardy beyond USDA growing zone 4.
Growing Poppy Plants From Seed
Poppies grow well when they seeds are sown directly in the garden bed. Sow the seeds in late autumn if you are in zone 7 or above (for winter and spring flowers), or during early spring in colder regions (for spring and early summer flowers). The seeds will germinate the best if they are in cool, well-draining soil in a location that receives full sun.
Annual poppies grow well from seeds but Oriental poppies (Papaver orientale) are perennials and for growing those, you would be better off buying a young plant from a nursery or garden center, although most nurseries don't carry them because of the difficulty in transplanting them. I've included instructions for growing Oriental poppies below.
Poppy seeds are tiny and need only to be scattered on top of the soil. If you do feel the need to cover them with soil, only place a very light covering on them. In the spring when they begin to sprout, if it appears they are growing too closely together, you might want to separate the ones that are growing too close to approximately six to eight inches apart.
Annual poppies will return each year if you leave the spring blooms on the plant so they can drop their seeds. If you are planting perennial poppies, remove the spent flowers to keep your plant flowering until late spring or early summer. Removing the spent flowers will also prevent self-sowing.
Caring For an Oriental Poppy Plant
Oriental poppies love the cool temperatures of early spring and fall when their colorful blossoms are opening just as most of your spring bulbs are finished. When poppies are their brightest, your summer flowers will not have begun to grow.
The proper time to plant oriental poppies is in the spring if you live where the winters are cold and fall if you live in an area where the winters are warm. If you are able to find a nursery that sells poppy plants that will be your best bet for growing them, but if none are available, you may have to simply sow seeds, but choose an area that allows them to receive at least six hours of sun a day or more. If your soil does not drain well, you need to amend the soil with a few inches of compost before you plant. Always turn over the top two inches of soil.
One of the most important things to consider when planting Oriental poppies is proper placement because they don't like to be moved...ever. (For that reason, you may not be able to find a nursery that carries the plants.) And, they don't grow well in soggy soil. You need to consider that they will go dormant in the heat, so plant some flowers in those bald spots left behind that have growth habits that will allow them to fill the empty spaces.
When it is time for your Oriental poppies to die back, don't try to save them by watering them excessively.
No Garden Should Be Without Poppies
"As for marigolds, poppies, hollyhocks, and valorous sunflowers, we shall never have a garden without them, both for their own sake and for the sake of old-fashioned folks, who used to love them." - Henry Ward Beecher
Poppies, along with many other flowers such as the carnation, hyacinth, anemone, lily, sunflower, rose, sunflower and violet are closely associated with customs from various cultures. Below, we are going to take a look at some of those customs and the role that poppies have played and continue to play.
The Poppy Goddess
The Importance of Poppies in Religion...
The terra cotta figurine of a woman known as the "Poppy Goddess" was discovered in Gazi, Crete sometime between 1400-1100 B.C. The figurine shows the woman with both hands raised and seeds of opium poppies on her head and she is said by historians to represent a Minoan goddess as the bringer of sleep or death. Historians also theorize that the woman's raised hands indicate that she is a deity that is gazing forward; and her open palms are an indication of some type of sudden revelation.
J. A. Sakellarakis, author of Heraklion Museum Illustrated Guide, published in 2003, thought the goddess could have been offering a greeting or a blessing, or she could have been praying. He also theorized that it might have symbolized her appearance on earth in human form.
In Grego-Roman myths, poppies were considered offerings to the dead, but English poet and author Robert Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985), who was also a student of Irish mythology, felt that the poppies' bright scarlet colour symbolized the promise of resurrection after death.
Shortly after World War I ended in 1918, the poppy began to symbolize remembrance of the "fallen" soldiers of that war. It was a time that almost every family was affected and the hope was that the remembrance would prevent future wars. But, apparently lessons were not learned and World War II came and went some decades later. Even today, almost 100 years after the end of WWI, there are those who believe that we can expect a World War III.
In spite of that belief, every autumn the artificial poppy is seen on lapels everywhere as people continue to remember those who lost their lives in those wars. Essentially, only the names on "remembrance walls" have changed; little else, as people debate each year what the poppy truly symbolizes.
"In Flanders Fields"
(Note: As well as their role in religion, medicine and mythology, because of the trench warfare in the poppy fields of Flanders (Belgium) during World War I, these colorful flowers have also become a symbol of the remembrance of soldiers who lost their lives during wartime. The famous poem "In Flanders Fields" was written by Major John McRae, second in command of the 1st Brigade Canadian Field Artillery.)
In Flanders Fields
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.
The journey of opiates from being considered a medicine to becoming a menace to society has been an interesting one, indeed. Opium seeds contain both morphine and codeine, and therein lies the problem for some (addicts), and the solution for others (physicians). In ancient Egypt, doctors would advise their patients in pain to eat poppy seeds containing those pain-relieving drugs that are still widely used today, but highly regulated by the government. That discovery, however, didn't begin with the Egyptians, as the earliest reference to the crop was in 3400 B.C. in Southwest Asia (Mesopotamia). The Sumerians of that region passed it on to the Syriacs (Assyrians) who then passed it on to the Egyptians. As word of the "healing" powers of the opium plant spread, demand for it became great and farmers began planting it to meet the increasing demand.
Addiction to opium begins with the planting of a single seed, and those seeds are planted by impoverished farmers all over the world.
Morphine, which acts directly upon the central nervous system, is considered the most powerful pain-relieving agent available. It is the most abundant alkaloid found in opium and the fastest relief for agonizing or debilitating pain. Sales of morphine originated at the Merck chemist shop in 1827. Today, Merck Pharmaceuticals is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, and morphine is used in hospitals worldwide.
Codeine also has some pain-relieving properties and it is the second-most abundant alkaloid in the opium poppy. Most often, however, codeine is used as a cough-relieving agent, but it is habit-forming and today is available only by prescription.
Just about any information you would need to know about opiates can be found in the Merck Manual, the digital version of which is available online. If you're old school and still want a book to peruse, they are available as well through Amazon. I use the Merck Manual religiously for information that I believe to be definitive on the subject of medicines. The professional version is written for healthcare professionals - and that's the information to which I appreciate having access.
Poppies were associated with Hypnos, the god of sleep, by the Greeks; and Morpheus, the god of dreams. The drug morphine gets its name from Morpheus. There are many societies that associated a symbolic meaning of the red color of some poppies with blood and passion.
© 2017 Mike and Dorothy McKenney