Occupational Safety Issues
The goals of safety issues
The goals of the occupational safety and health programs include imparting a safe and healthy work environment. OSH may also help protect co-workers, family members, employers and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. In the United States, the term healthy issues is reffered to as occupational health and occupational and non-occupational safety and includes safety guidelines for activities outside of work.
Basic tips of safety issues
There are many types of safety aspects. Among them, there are three major aspects covered by workplace health safety.
1.occupational health & safety- Programs which focus on preventing injuries or illness and eliminating hazards.
2.healthy choices- Traditional health promotion activities at work which encourage overall health and wellness.
3.organizational health-Management practices and strategies that focus on culture, relationship and values within the workplace.
safety cannot be expressed by a single definition,although in general we can say-"safety"is an absence of danger whereas danger is the absence of safety".OR "safety is a state of protection or a condition not involving risk".Safety can also be expressed as the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk.This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes health or economical losses.It can include protection of people.
ACCIDENT AND SAFETY
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY ACCIDENT?
An accident or a mishap is an unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstances, often with lack of intention or necessity. It usually implies a generally negative outcome which might have been avoided or prevented, had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized and acted upon, prior to its occurrence. Injury prevention refers to activities designed to foresee and avoid accidents.
CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS
Occupational accidents can be classified on the following basis:
1.on the basis of hazards(falls or being struck by materials,striking against objects etc.)
2.on the basis of agency(machines, means of transport and lifting equipments,work environment etc.)
3.on the basis of injury(<i>nature of injury:wounds, fractures, dislocations,burns,poisoning,diseases <ii>location of the injury in the body:head, trunk, upper and lower extremities, body system etc.)
AIM OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
The occupational safety philosophy has been developed in order to:
1.prevent needless destruction of health and waste of human and other resources.
2.raise the morale of workers.
3.prevent inefficiency in the workplace due to the effects of accidents.
4.prevent social harm causes by accidents..
5.promote accident prevention.
In many occupations, it is mandatory to use a protective equipment while working, because of the nature of the job. Following are some protective equipments used in a work environment:
It is very important to protect your eyes and face from flying objects, dust, rust, vapors and other harmful substances.
Equipment used-safety glasses, goggles, face shields.
Example-workers or other persons adjacent to welding areas must be protected from the rays by non-combustible or flameproof screens.
In a working area where there is a possible danger of head injuries from overhead impact or falling objects, proper equipment must be used to prevent the danger.
Equipment used - Hard hats.
Example - workers at a construction site.
Appropriate hand protection is required where employees are exposed to injuries chemicals or abrasive materials.
Equipment used - Gloves (type specified to the nature of occupation).
It is important to wear appropriate shoes at a workplaces. However, in some areas, where is a possibility of injury, safety shoes must be worn.
Example-steel-toed shoes are required where employees work with heavy objects or machinery that could cause foot injury.
A workplace that deals with high frequency of noise levels cloud cause temporary or permanent hearing impairment.
Equipment used-earphones or headphones.
Importance of first aid
First aid is the immediate care given to victims of accidents before the arrival of trained medical workers. Its goal is to stop and, if possible reverse harm. It involves rapid and simple measures such as clearing the air passageway, applying pressure to bleeding wounds or dousing chemical burns on eyes or skin. The critical factors which shape first aid facilities in a workplaces are work specific risks and availability of definitive medical care, e.g. The care of a high-powered saw injury is obviously radically different from that of a chemical inhalation.
Every worker can be trained in the top 10 crucial steps of first aid. In some situations, immediate action can save life, limb or eyesight. Co-workers of victims should not remain mere observes or by standers while waiting for trained personnel to arrive.
CARE OF INJURED AND SICK AT THE WORKPLACE-
Varies first aid provisions should be set up to take care of the sick and injured persons at the workplace. As the type of injury may vary from small to large, so depending upon it first aid kits, first aid rooms and health canter should be set up.
1] First aid kit
The first aid kit should provide basic equipments for administering first aid rooms and health center should be set up.
i. Cuts, scratches, punctures, grazes and splinters.
ii. Muscular sprains and strains.
iii. Minor burns.
iv. Amputations and /or major bleeding wounds.
v. Broken bones.
vi. Eye injuries,
vii. Electric shock.
The contents of first aid kits should be based on a risk assessment. For example, there may be higher risk of eye injuries and a need for additional eye pads in a workplace where :
i> Chemicals liquids or powders are handled in open containers.
ii>Spraying, hosting or abrasive, blasting operations are carried out.
iii> There is any possibility of flying particles causing eye injuries.
iv> There is a risk of splashing or spraying of infectious materials.
v. Welding, cutting or machining operations are carried out.
2] First aid rooms
A first aid room should be established at the workplace if a risk assessment indicates that it would be difficult to administer appropriate first aid unless a first aid room is provided.
For example, workers who carry out work at workplaces where there is a higher risk of serious injury or illness occurring that would not only require immediate first aid, but also further treatment by an emergency service, may benefits from having access to a a dedicated first aid d room.
A first aid room is recommended for:
I. Low risk workplaces with 200 workers or more.
II. High risk workplaces with 100 workers or more.
Health center is satisfied by a registered health practitioner (a door or a norse ) or a paramedical who can provide emergency medical treatment and cater to the types of hazards in high risk workplaces.
*Transportation of a sick person
The general public often thinks of an ambulance, when the term"transportation of a sick person" is mentioned. However medical transport can refer to numerous types of transportation and companies that serve those are ill.
An ambulance is a vehicle which has been designed for the transportation of sick person or someone who requires medical attention.
Ambulance services may be operated by hospitals, governments and various organizations.
They are also sometimes known as mobile hospitals but it depends on the equipment they carry.