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Saved by the Camellia Tree! Earthquake in Chile, 1960

Updated on February 19, 2013

The beauty of the Camellia Tree

A beautiful variegated Camellia Japonica
A beautiful variegated Camellia Japonica | Source

Deep pink double Camellia

Shows the beauty of the Camellia flower
Shows the beauty of the Camellia flower | Source

A pure white Camellia

Another beautiful Camellia
Another beautiful Camellia | Source

A pale pink Camellia

A delicate pink for this Camellia
A delicate pink for this Camellia | Source

Description of a Camellia Bush or Tree

The Camellia is a beautiful flower, growing on an evergreen tree, with nice shiny dark green leaves. When very young, it is just a bush, but a mature Camellia becomes a tree, with a hard brown trunk that is not too thick, but quite firm. It takes on an umbrella shape, with several branches that widen out near the top. The tallest I've seen here in Concepcion, Chile, has been over three meters high. It is sometimes difficult to reach the flowers; you would need a short ladder to pick them.

The Camellia flowers in winter and most blooms survive relatively strong storms, but during these same storms, the flowers can get bruised and the petals turn a yellowy brown color. One can also see a sprinkling of Camellia petals on the ground under the tree. These correspond to flowers that have ended their life span, the petals just fall off.

The colors vary from a creamy white to a deep ruby red, and can show various shades of pink, from the palest of pale, to a really deep pink. Sometimes the flowers will show petals of mixed colors, and it is possible to have flowers with various different shades and marks on the same tree.

In our family wanderings while living here in Chile, very occasionally, we were lucky enough to take over a house and find a Camellia tree already set up in the garden, as they grow slowly. At my present living place, there are two small bushes that are coming along quite nicely. I hope to see them grow up!

A view of a Camellia Bush

A flowering young Camellia bush with petals covering the ground
A flowering young Camellia bush with petals covering the ground | Source

Our Camellia Tree produced this kind of flower

I often picked Camellias like this one.
I often picked Camellias like this one. | Source

The Tree also gave us Camellias like this one

These flowers are so beautiful, they vary so much on the same tree
These flowers are so beautiful, they vary so much on the same tree | Source

And sometimes the flowers looked like this one

I often picked Camellias like this one.
I often picked Camellias like this one. | Source

The most expensive Camellia Tree in the World!

In a previous Article on HubPages about me Grandmother Madge’s various gardens, I have written about the many times we moved house over the years, until we finally settled down in Concepcion, Chile.

In 1956, my father bought a property with the intention of building our “definite” house there. He chose what had been a relatively old property, belonging to a British family that had died out. It was a large piece of ground that had once had a big sprawling house surrounded by large gardens. The house no longer stood, but the foundations were still there, a really strong old fashioned affair made up of enormous stones that formed a platform that was raised high off the ground to avoid the dampness in that area which was close to the great Biobio river.

My father got first choice of one half of this property, and he chose the part that had the foundations, with the idea of saving money on their construction. The plan of our house-to-be did not quite coincide with the shape of these foundations, he still had to consider prolonging the platform towards the back of the property, but it was still a great save!

Now it so happened that in front of what had been the wall of the old house on the side that faced the street, there was a mature Camellia tree, quite fully grown and flowering beautifully. With the idea of getting the best fit for the house using the old foundations, my father planned to eliminate this obnoxious tree!

He was confronted by all three generations of women, my Granny Madge, my mother and me, outraged at the very idea of chopping down the Camellia tree! After a lot of shouting, my mother announced that he would have to cut the tree down “over her dead body”. This turned the tide of the battle, as my mother was usually a quiet, peaceful person, who rarely shouted about anything!

The tree was saved, and the house was moved further back, which included building more foundations than my father had originally calculated on doing. This in turn meant spending quite a lot more money!

Well, we finally moved in to this new house, and my mother started to decorate the coffee table in the living room, with her flower arrangements, using her Dahlias and also the Camellias, according to the seasons.

When anybody visited, the first thing was always an exclamation about the beauty of these flower arrangements. When it happened to be the Camellia flowers, my father could be heard to mutter: “They had better be beautiful; those are the most expensive Camellias ever!”

Destruction in Concepcion Chile 1960

The bridge over the Biobio river, partially destroyed by the 1960 earthquake
The bridge over the Biobio river, partially destroyed by the 1960 earthquake | Source
The bridge over the Biobio river, after the 1960 earthquake, taken from the south side.
The bridge over the Biobio river, after the 1960 earthquake, taken from the south side. | Source

Damaged buildings, 1960

A view of the damage to houses in Concepcion, 1960.
A view of the damage to houses in Concepcion, 1960. | Source

The happenings of the year 1960

There we were, happily living in our own house, all those moves to here and there completely forgotten. The house was made of good Chilean wood, basically one story high, with a very large attic under the roof. This attic was where I lived in great comfort. All the center area was one big space, and I had a small bathroom included, with my bed stuck in under the eaves where the roof started to slope down. My bed was at the back end of this long attic, and the stairs were at the front, near the front door.

On the 21st of May, 1960, at about 6.10 am, we were violently shaken awake by the first of the great earthquakes of that weekend. The fact that the house was made of wood allowed it to bend and sway with this shake, which registered at 8.3 Richter. That was the good part; the bad part was that my attic was moving around so much, I never got further along than the end of my bed. The 3 minutes plus that the movement lasted were eternal, as I crouched down, hanging on to the foot of my bed. I remember thinking that if it didn't stop soon, the house was going to crack open. I never got anywhere near the stairs until the shake subsided, and then I had to climb over the mound of books and overturned stands on the way to the door.

The light went off, of course, this happens automatically with any shake that registers at 6.3 or over. So we had to wait until daylight to see what was what. In the meantime the skies opened and the rain teamed down, after 5 months of extra dry weather. This was not so good for the people out on the street in front of the ruins of their houses, but really good for controlling the various fires that broke out in the downtown area.

From our front garden, the scene was like something out of Dante’s Inferno, with lightening crossing the sky and the glow of the fires on the horizon, while all the time we were rocked by the after-shakes.

We spent some time collecting clothes, the remains of dishes, candles, and sorting out usable food. There was no light, no water and no gas for our kitchen stove, we spent the following 15 days cooking on a charcoal brazier.

Taking stock of our two cars, we found the big, heavy, old-fashioned Chevrolet station wagon - the family vehicle – was displaced all the way down to the gate, but in good working order. The little Morris Minor that I usually drove, and which I had left outside on the street the night before, was steeply inclined towards its right side: both the front and back wheel on the right had been “swallowed” and were buried in the earth. My father and I were able to dig the Morris out with spades, and put it upright, and oh miracle! it worked just fine!.

Faulty terrain in 1960 earthquake

Faults can be severe to moderate, but will always cause damage.
Faults can be severe to moderate, but will always cause damage. | Source

Faulty terrain will always cause damage

During the earthquakes of 1960, there were many changes in the terrain levels. Some were shallow, like ours, and some were really big cracks that caused a lot of destruction.

We discover the fault in the terrain

When we finally got more or less straightened out and had collected our wits, we took stock outside of our property, with the intention of checking on our neighbors and organizing the drinking water situation with the use of the old wells that were still usable in the small valley where we lived.

It was then that we realized that there was this long fault in the terrain, where the ground had simply sunk down and changed its level. The fault started in the next block at the foot of the hill located at the end of that street. It cut across the street and passed diagonally through the adjacent block, damaging several houses. It then entered the street that ran in front of our house and came down the pavement on our side, destroying the underground tubes that transported the water and the gas. This was the reason for the Morris Minor being partially buried.

The fault then turned in through our property, skirted the Camellia tree, which survived very happily, just nicked the corner of the house itself, cut across the empty plot next door, plunged under the next house that had its back to us, cut across that street, met up with the next small hill at the other side of our valley, and finally died out, just before destroying part of the railway that runs along the northern bank of the Biobio river..

Needless to say, if my father had won the “battle of the Camellia tree” and placed the house further forwards towards the street, all the front would have been caught by the fault, and there is no kind of construction that can withstand a fault in the ground under the foundations, much less a wooden house. The house would have split open, carrying the staircase with it, which was the way down for me out of my attic. The effect on the second floor attic in general, doesn’t bear thinking about, or trying to imagine, it simply would have been a disaster!

Aftermath.

Fortunately for my father’s bruised pride, there was no opportunity to claim the female victory at that time, as the very next day, on the 22nd of May, the great earthquake at Valdivia struck the country just after 3.00 o’clock in the afternoon.

This particular earthquake is known as the strongest the world has ever recorded, at 9.5 on the Richter scale. It lasted for more than 10 minutes, causing a tidal wave that not only destroyed the southern coast of Chile, but also swept across the Pacific, affecting Hawaii, the Philippines, Japan, New Zealand, California and more, with waves over 10 meters high. The Puyehue Volcano near Osorno on the Chilean mainland came out of its slumber, remembered that it was active and erupted. The destruction was great and many lives were lost.

The effect on Concepcion was terrible; many people thought it was the end of the world. Since the Spaniards started keeping records in the 15th century, it was unheard of to suffer two major earthquakes in just over 24 hours. The Valdivia earthquake hit Concepcion with a force of 8.1 Richter, just a little less than the one on the day before. As we were on what is called the “tail-end” of the movement, it was even longer in Concepcion, nearly 15 eternal minutes.

The scientists finally concluded that Chile had been affected by a “swarm” of earthquakes, all of them of a major intensity, with epicenters that spread all the way down to the Taitao peninsula, in the uninhabited regions of the Patagonia. The shakes followed so closely together, that we perceived them as one long event, and in general it was a pretty fierce experience.

I intend to write about Chile’s earthquakes and my personal experience of them in another Hub. Let me just say here that the Camellia tree was accepted as a valued member of our small family, and my father invited his trio of women out to a delicious and luxurious dinner to celebrate our stubbornness over saving this beautiful and noble tree!

© 2012 joanveronica (Joan Robertson)

Saved by the Camellia Tree!

These flowers were well worth the effort of saving them!
These flowers were well worth the effort of saving them! | Source

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    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 2 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Rest in peace my friend.

    • Sunshine625 profile image

      Linda Bilyeu 2 years ago from Orlando, FL

      RIP, Joan. You will be missed by many :(

    • sallybea profile image

      Sally Gulbrandsen 2 years ago from Norfolk

      This is an amazing story. Having never experienced more than a few tremors, in my lifetime, I cannot even imagine how terrifying this must have been. I very much enjoyed reading your story and seeing your very beautiful images.

    • LongTimeMother profile image

      LongTimeMother 2 years ago from Australia

      This is a story everyone should read. What an extraordinary event to live through ... and such a powerful account. I'm sorry I didn't read it earlier, but glad I read it today.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 3 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Jodah so happy to see movement on this Hub, which is quite a favorite of mine! Thanks for the visit, the comment and of course, the follow!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 3 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Jodah so happy to see movement on this Hub, which is quite a favorite of mine! Thanks for the visit, the comment and of course, the follow!

    • Jodah profile image

      John Hansen 3 years ago from Queensland Australia

      What a delightful story Joan, and how fortunate the women in your family had fought for the preservation of the camellia tree. You tell a fine tale and I enjoyed everything about this hub. Voted up.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Patty so happy for your visit and comment! I'm glad you enjoyed this story, it holds great significance for me, it's a symbol of some really hard experinces, including the shock of the earthquake itself and the voluntary work I did after it. Those scenes are not easy to forget! So thanks for your support!

    • Patty Inglish, MS profile image

      Patty Inglish 4 years ago from North America

      This would have been appropriate for Paul Harvey's "The rest of the Story..." show on the radio. That camellia was or still is a special tree and your mom knew it, didn't she?

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 4 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Flowers bring such beauty to a person's life and surroundings a well thought of hub on this title, and disasters are not forgotten

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Writer Fox, I do so totally agree with you! Thanks for the visit and the comment, and have a good day!

    • Writer Fox profile image

      Writer Fox 4 years ago from the wadi near the little river

      You have a beautiful homeland with so many, many wonderful flowers.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi livingsta! So happy you liked this Hub, it's a bit more modern than yours, but pretty real for me still. We have since lived through yet another mega shake in 2010. Quite recently. The scars are still all over the city. But we are doing OK! So thanks for the vote, the share and the tweet! Have a good day!

    • livingsta profile image

      livingsta 4 years ago from United Kingdom

      Wow, beautiful hub. I enjoyed reading this. Lovely with beautiful photos.

      Votes up, sharing and tweeting!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi DDE, thank you for the visit and the comment! Yes indeed, the Camellia tree is a very special one, the flowers are so beautiful and it takes quite some time to grow! We were very fond of our own, growing in our front garden! Thanks again, and have a good day!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi dili, I'm so glad you liked this Hub! Thanks so much for your visit and the comment, and I hope to see you around! Have a good day!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Mary, your visit and comment are most welcome! Especially after reading your reaction to my Camellia story! It was fun to write and to remember those days (quite funny really, seen through the perspective of time!) As my father used to say: "Never a dull moment in the South of Chile!" I'm so glad you liked it, I must confess that I do too. Thanks so much for the visit, the comment and the share! I hope to see you around, so have a good day!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 4 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi vocalcoach! I loved your visit and your comment! Thank you so much for taking the time to visit! Tell you a secret, I love this story too! It seems to me it all happened just yesterday, I still feel it's all so real! And the camellias are so beautiful! Thanks again, and have a good day!

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 4 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Incredible told story, a tree which changed your lives, thanks for enlightening me on this tree never knew it was expensive. A well presented Hub indeed.

    • dilipchandra12 profile image

      Dilip Chandra 4 years ago from India

      Good hub, informative and well written. Thank you for sharing the above. I like it, voted up.

    • tillsontitan profile image

      Mary Craig 4 years ago from New York

      I'm sitting here trying to figure out where to begin...with the beautiful pictures of the camellias, the history of the camellias, the story of the building of your family home, or your description of the earthquake? This could be a blockbuster movie, Joan, all the parts are here. I love all your hubs but I think this is the best yet!

      Voted up, awesome, interesting and shared!

    • vocalcoach profile image

      Audrey Hunt 4 years ago from Nashville Tn.

      Joan - Oh, how I love this hub. Your story captivated me so. Your photos are magnificent. I'm eager to read more of your hubs. You are such a gifted writer. Thank you and blessings to you, beautiful lady! (voted all across except for funny.)

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Faith, thank you for the visit, the comment and the follow! I'm so glad you liked this Hub.

      Camellias are difficult plants to grow, maybe you could consult a specialist? I do hope the second one will survive! Have a good day and God bless!

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 5 years ago from southern USA

      I love the Camella tree!!! Your photos are amazing dear one. Very insightful hub here. I live in the south, where Camellas should do well, but I tried two grow two red Camellas - one died and the other one just hanging on for dear life. The first year they bloomed and were so beautiful, but then I do not know what happened. Voted Up In His Love, Faith Reaper

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, Movie Master, many thanks for your visit and comment, coming from you, with your wonderful visual articles, that is high praise indeed!

      I will add that it was fun writing the story of our Camelia. I love these flowers! Have a good day!

    • Movie Master profile image

      Movie Master 5 years ago from United Kingdom

      What an amazing story Joan - I love your style of writing, I was completely obsorbed in your words.

      The Camelia is a beautiful flower - the pictures are fabulous.

      Thank you for sharing and voted up.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, Christy, thank you for your lovely comment! I'm so glad you liked the story, it is very representative of my family's ups-and-downs, there was always something interesting happening!

      It was fun writing and remembering those days, rather far away now! Have a good day and be happy!

    • ChristyWrites profile image

      Christy Birmingham 5 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Your family story about the Camellia tree and the generations of women saying 'over my dead body' is a great story! Thanks for sharing so much info here with us.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, shining! Nice to have you visit and also to read your lovely comment!

      I'm happy you liked this story, I enjoyed writing it and reviewing my memories. Life always seems to be interesting, somehow! Have a good day and be happy!

    • shiningirisheyes profile image

      Shining Irish Eyes 5 years ago from Upstate, New York

      Another wonderful walk you have taken me on.

      I am a fan my dear!!!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Ian, I had to smile at the comment "it's just a little one", we say that all the time here, except when it's not so little, then we normally clamp our mouths tight shut and wait it out!

      You must have been very shaken up on th 20th floor, the tall buildings are built to sway, and they do, alarmingly! It's a terrible feeling! Glad it was really a little one!

    • alian346 profile image

      alian346 5 years ago from Edinburgh, Scotland

      Thankfully any earthquakes here, as you'll know, are very very slight.

      The only earthquake I was ever involved in was in Japan and that was only 5.7 - mind you I was on the 20th floor of a hotel - we Brits were terrified but all the Japanese people were just wandering around saying 'Oh - it's just a little one this time.' !!

      You must have been absolutely terrified and also so young!

      Ian.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Ian, you are certainly doing me proud with your comments!

      I have to agree that major earthquakes are terrifying, and the 1960 "swarm" that affected Chile, was particularly so.

      It's nice to have you back, so thank you for your visit and the comment! Have a nice day and be happy!

    • alian346 profile image

      alian346 5 years ago from Edinburgh, Scotland

      What a terrifying and electrifying story - you write so well and engagingly - I was hooked! Thank god you were OK!!

      And such a beautiful tree, too.

      Ian.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, glad to have you back, visiting my Hub! Your comment is wonderful, and so is the share and the follow!

      I have checked out your profile and some Hubs, and I will be following you back, so we will be in touch!

      Have a good day and be happy!

    • mizjo profile image

      mizjo 5 years ago from New York City, NY

      The camellia to me is the Old South and ladies in crinolines holding frilly parasols. It is romance and gracious living and waltzes under the stars.

      Those are my visions when I come close to a camellia bush. I have never seen one as large as the one in your photo. The bushes here have a visible trunk and branches and umbrella shaped top, and the flowers are not so prolific. But all camellias are so beautiful that I don't care what shape or size their bushes grow to.

      This is such a lovely hub, with elements of family story and country's history, written with warmth and humor. Voted up, beautiful, and sharing.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Susana, thanks for the visit and the comment! I'm glad you liked the Camellia Tree! Be happy!

    • profile image

      Susana 5 years ago

      I have a pink camellia tree in my front yard. Many years ago, when my grandfather was still alive, we used to give him the first one every spring. Now every time I look at it I think of him.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      I'm glad you liked this Hub! I wrote it with all my heart, as this is MY story! Thanks for the visit and the comment.

    • Pavlo Badovskyy profile image

      Pavlo Badovskyi 5 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine

      I always loved camelia. Stories about camelia usually involve love, passion and some enigma sometimes. Your hub is absolutely different. I like it.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi Redberry Sky! Thanks for visiting and for your comment! I'm so glad you enjoyed this story, I had a good time writing it! It sounds much better when one is not actually living the moment!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, CyberShelley, thanks for the visit and the comment! I'm glad you liked the story, it has been fun recreating all those long-ago events! I can now look back at them with a laugh, or at least a smile. Be happy!

    • CyberShelley profile image

      Shelley Watson 5 years ago

      Hello Joanveronica, I was looking forward to your next hub, and once again you relate a marvellous story. So glad your home was saved to cast a shadow for the exquisite Camellia. I love them and have grown them too, allowing them shade in the heat and the hot afternoon sun.

    • Redberry Sky profile image

      Redberry Sky 5 years ago

      Wonderful story, fascinating and terrifying in equal measures! It has an atmosphere about it like an old Victorian ghost story... I loved every word of it - and of course I'm glad the Camellia tree won, and you lived unscathed to tell the tale :)

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi RTalloni, thank you for your comment! We often repeated this story to visitors who would comment on the famous tree when looking at our front garden! They were always very taken with these adventures! Please do look after your Camellias very carefully!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi AliciaC, glad to have you stop by! To try to imagine the results of not saving the tree, is just too difficult! We would have lost our nice house, just for starters! And a lot more could have happened also!

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi moonlake, thanks for the visit and the comment! Also the share! The Camellia is indeed a beautiful tree, even the leaves are attractive, so green and shiny.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, Peggy W, thanks for the visit, the comment and the share! Indeed the Camellia can turn into a small tree, I have had to climb ladders often to reach the blooms. I had never heard of trimming them, we usually just cut off any dead branches and left them to their own devices. They are beautiful trees!

    • RTalloni profile image

      RTalloni 5 years ago from the short journey

      A camellia tree as the hero of a story--amazing! I'm thankful you are here to tell us the story. I will be looking at my camellias with new eyes now!

    • AliciaC profile image

      Linda Crampton 5 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      This is a very interesting hub, with a dramatic story and beautiful photos! It's wonderful that a Camellia tree saved your family's lives.

    • moonlake profile image

      moonlake 5 years ago from America

      Very nice hub. Enjoyed reading your story. What a beautiful tree. Voted UP and shared.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 5 years ago from Houston, Texas

      Wow! What a story! Your family truly was saved by the Camellia tree! The hub I wrote about camellia shrubs is needless to say much less of a story...no earthquakes involved. I keep ours trimmed as shrubs. Did not realize that they could actually turn into small trees.

      Voted up, interesting and sharing.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi teaches, thanks for the visit and the comment! I'm patiently waiting for our new little Camellia bush to grow up. As it is, it's full of blooms at the moment (we are starting Winter here).

    • teaches12345 profile image

      Dianna Mendez 5 years ago

      Wow, this is a beautiful tree. Your photos do prove them to be worth the money.

    • joanveronica profile image
      Author

      Joan Veronica Robertson 5 years ago from Concepcion, Chile

      Hi, thanks for the visit and the comment, I'm glad you liked it, it was fun recreating all those adventures from the perspective of 50 years in the future!

    • Living Well Now profile image

      Living Well Now 5 years ago from Near Indianapolis

      What a terrific hub! A great story with interesting pics ... I hope you get a Hub of the Day for this.