I would suggest that you start with plants that you can set out in your containers. Make sure that you get large containers (5 gallons or more). Use good potting soil and don't forget to fertilize after the plants are established.
Plant vegetables that you enjoy. Easy ones that are usually set out as plants are bush or patio tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, broccoli and cauliflower.
If you'd like to try seeds, I would suggest leaf lettuce, bush beans, radishes and some of the "mini" or bush varieties of squash.