Unfortunately I don't have a back garden, at the moment. I make do with an allotment, not too far away. The growing period starts in February and ends in August, so there is only a very short season for most things. In this temperate climate some vegetables need many months to reach maturity and can last through the winter period if there in not too much frost and ice on the ground.
Things to grow for the longer season are carrots, potatoes (early and main) - cabbages, brussel sprouts, leeks, onions, parsnips, swedes and others to name but a few.
Traditionally grown were the potatoes, onions, sprouts, kale, carrots, parsnips and cabbages. Lettuces and other greens needing the warmth were grown in the summer.
All that changed when people adopted plastic tunnels and greenhouses on a wider scale and could prepare seedlings in advance of the season, so that tomatoes - suitable for outdoors - would get a 'quick' start and the short warm season wouldn't stunt their growth. I can attest to this, unless, the cherry/bush or trailing variety are grown, the usual upright type will not reach full maturity by September.
So to answer the question, what I now do is a combination of cloche or plastic tunnel grown variety - cucumber, early squash/courgette, aubergine, peppers, tomatoes, melons.
Fruit that grows well outdoors - strawberries, raspberries, blackcurrants, apples, some pear varieties and some cherries, (if the weather is warm). I had a fig tree that grew and produced well - what a treat!
Outdoor is a mixture of the longer season vegetables - named above - and the quickly grown plants - chard family, the squashes, lettuces, outdoor bush tomatoes, (started under plastic, but lovely flavor if finished outdoors), herbs, early onions, bean varieties, corn, (if the weather is warm), broccoli and the many companion flowers that benefit the veg growth.
Thanks for the question. Love the vegetables.