Acetone is one of the best available solvents for super glue. Super glue is a acrylic based adhesive called cyanoacrylate. Acrylic is basically derived from acetone.
Fingernail polish remover contains acetone and can be applied by a small cotton swab so that it can be localized on the super glue. If it is a bigger bead you may want to use an acrylic solvent like Weldon 3 (TM). This would be available at a place that sells plastic sheet and supplies.
It will take pretty aggressive rubbing and may take some time.
All.these solvents will require ventilation. You do not want to breath their vapor. Also these solvents will dissolve all organic wood stains or finishes that might be on your table so you have to be careful.
If you don't want to use a solvent, then you can use a very fine sand paper like a 220 grit. You need to take just a corner and maybe apply pressure with a nail or something fine and you can sand it until you remove the drop.
There is probably no way that you can get around taking some of the finish off your table. The best way to refinish will be to get some stains and you need to mix stains to match. You need to mix and rub it into a scrap piece of wood and wait to dry. When you find the mix, you want to slowly rub until the color matches. You want to localize it and not rub too far because a stain will change to color where ever you apply. If it is just a small area like a little dot and you are very careful, you will be able to do a good job and no one will be able to tell that glue had been dropped on your table.