ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

History of the Apple

Updated on April 20, 2011

Apples were probably native to southwestern Asia in the Caucasus area between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, but they have been cultivated in Europe for several thousand years. Charred remains of the fruit have been discovered in the prehistoric Swiss lake dwellings that date back to 4000 B.C., and lists of different varieties existed in Rome as early as 300 B.C. Apples were probably carried by the Romans when they invaded western Europe.

Both seeds and grafted trees were brought to America by the early colonists. Among the earliest colonists to import apples was Governor John Endecott of the Massachusetts Bay colony, who imported 300 trees to America from England about 1649. Jesuit missionaries from France carried the seeds of the Fameuse variety of apple into the St. Lawrence Valley, and many Indians took the seeds farther west and planted orchards in their villages. In 1730, the French Huguenots established a nursery at Flushing, Long Island. Although grafting on rootstocks was practiced in Virginia as early as 1647, the ease of transporting seeds made seed planting the principal method of spreading the apple into frontier country. The apples borne by seedling trees were used for making cider, vinegar, and apple butter, and some seedlings bore fruit good enough for eating raw.

John Chapman, known as Johnny Appleseed, carried seed through many areas of the East and is believed to have planted 35 nurseries in 19 counties of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from 1797 to 1836. By 1900, most farms in the United States had small backyard orchards, and the census reported a total of more than 200 million apple trees. In the northwestern part of the United States the Hood river valley in Oregon became famous for its fine apples early in the 20th century, and extensive plantings were started in the Wenatchee and Yakima valleys of Washington.

Spraying to control orchard pests became increasingly important as the San Jose scale, codling moth, and other harmful insects became numerous enough to threaten apple production. The first sprays and equipment were crude, but modern chemicals and spray apparatus make it possible to control pests quickly and effectively. One of the most valuable developments in pest control is the automatic speed sprayer, which can spray 60 to 70 acres of mature orchard in ten hours.

Many other modern techniques of orchard management have been developed through research conducted by state and federal experiment stations, farm extension services, producers of spray machinery and chemicals, fruit journals, and cooperative growers' associations. By using these techniques, growers today can produce apples of higher quality than those produced in 1900. Moreover, in the 50-year period between 1900 and 1950, the amount of apples raised on each tree increased from one bushel to four bushels. Many growers now average 15 to 20 bushels a tree, and some pack up to 2,000 bushels of selected fruit per acre, with less than 5 percent of the crop unsuitable for marketing. Today, the United States produces nearly as many apples as were produced in 1900, but does so on only about one-sixth as many trees.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)