ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

How to Plan a Greenhouse

Updated on July 14, 2014

Ready to plan?

The structure that you choose to build will be decided by foundation, covering, and heating needs. I'm going to walk you through each factor, and by the time we're done, you will know what kind of greenhouse you want to build. Ready?

Our frame- see a foundation?
Our frame- see a foundation?

Factor #1


First things first: foundations. A lot of websites and blogs are going to tell you that you need to build a solid foundation and suggest that a permanent structure is the only way to go, but we encourage you to cast aside that thought and ask yourself if you really need a foundation. Without a foundation, you can significantly decrease costs. For one thing, a temporary building permit is usually much cheaper than a permanent one. Maybe you're thinking, "but I won't be able to support a real greenhouse without a foundation!" Think again- high tunnel (Quonset) structures don't require a foundation and come in sizes that can facilitate large aquaponics systems. If you don't believe us, check out our greenhouse.

Our high tunnel is covered in a double layer of polyethylene.
Our high tunnel is covered in a double layer of polyethylene.

How to Choose a Covering

The Four Factors

There are four factors that go into choosing a covering:

Life span


R value

Light transmittance

Life Span

Regardless of what kind of covering you choose, you will need to do maintenance and eventually you'll need to replace them. A double layer of polyethylene we use will last five or six years before we have to replace it, and after two years we haven't had to mend many cracks or holes. (When we do get tears in the covering, we simply mend them with clear duct tape, which is cheap and does the job just fine.) Keep the lifespan of the covering in mind when you are thinking about pricing- it may cost half as much, but if you have to replace it three times as often, it doesn't matter.


Price is going to be dependent on the type of material used. Glass, acrylic, fiberglass and poly carbonate panels are going to be the most expensive, and will not fit on a high tunnel's rounded roof well. A film covering such as polyethylene is much cheaper and can be ordered with UV and thermal protective coatings, still at a cheaper cost than most panels. Polyethylene is the choice covering for most greenhouse builders.

R Values

Different coverings offer different R values. Essentially, the R value is a measure of how well a material can hold heat inside your greenhouse, and is a good way to tell how well a covering will insulate. The higher the R value, the better it is at insulating. There are five main coverings you can use to cover a greenhouse structure: Glass, Plexiglas, Polyethylene, Polycarbonate, and acrylic. Some of the non-rigid materials can be applied in double- or triple-layers. We use an inflated double layer of polyethylene that gives us an R value of 1.7, which we find to be adequate for our needs. (For more R Values)

Light Transmittance

A covering will let through either diffused or non-diffused light.

Non-diffused light waves pass straight through the covering and continue in the same direction. diffused lightDiffused light waves get scattered as they pass through the covering, which bends them all different directions. Diffused light is preferable for plant growth because when the light waves are coming in at all different directions, plants have more opportunities to absorb them. If you are growing vertically, diffused light will provide the same amount of light to the plants on top as to the plants on the bottom of your towers.

Film or Panels?

Films can be used on almost any frame (a dome could be tricky), but panels are more limited. Some Plexiglas panels are flexible enough to fit over a slightly curved roof, but most panels incompatible with high tunnel type greenhouses.We advise you to forget about panels. Glass, plexiglas, rigid acrylic- the cost and upkeep isn't worth the benefit. Use a high tunnel with a film fitted over it.

We use a wood burning boiler to supplement heat in the winter.
We use a wood burning boiler to supplement heat in the winter.

How much heat will you need to supplement?

Some people buy heaters based on the number of square feet, but that doesn't take into consideration the other factors that change the temperature of your green house, such as insulation and changing weather. The first thing you need to do before you decide on a heating method is find out how much heat you will need to produce. There are calculations that will give you the number, but don't worry- you won't have to do any math today. There are several online calculators that will do the work for you. The calculator will ask you to fill in the type of covering you use, the square feet, and the temperatures inside and outside. When you fill in the temperature inside, this should be the temperature you want. We keep our greenhouse at 70 - 75 degrees Fahrenheit. When you enter the outside temperature, enter the lowest temperature that your area will experience. The number that you end up with will be in BTU's - British Thermal Units. You will want to buy a heater that can produce that amount of BTUs so that you know you will be able to heat your greenhouse in the coldest part of the winter.

Heating and Temperature Regulation Methods


Different heaters will use different fuels. Fuel cost partly depends on where you live, so be aware of fuel prices in your area.


A wood burning stove or a wood-burning boiler can be very economic if wood is abundant. We use a wood-burning boiler because although the boiler’s initial cost is high, wood is cheap around Laramie. Also, the boiler can be very powerful, which our climate requires.

Natural gas or propane.

Gas could be the cheapest option for you. Heaters that use propane natural gas are forced-air heaters, boilers, or vented/non-vented gas heaters.

Electric heaters.

Initially, electric heaters are cheap to install, but in the long run end up costing a lot in electricity bills. If you are only supplementing heat a few times during the winter, this may still be a good option for you. If you live somewhere like Laramie, on the other hand, electric heat isn't an option. Electric heaters usually come as space heaters, overhead heaters, ceramic heaters, and some boilers.


Regulation can be a good investment in efficiency by buffering drops in temperature. However- regulation is not heating, and unless you live in a rare type of climate or grow seasonally, you will need some kind of heating.

Heat sinks.

We've heard of using buckets of water or sand bags with black fabric as “sinks”. The sink collects heat during the day and slowly releases it at night, extending the hours of warmth. These work with varying levels of success depending on whether there is enough sunlight where they are placed and the material you are using.


Insulation can mean a double layer wall, insulation in the ground or horticultural fleece. Some people even use bubble wrap. Think about insulating the wall, but also using insulation as a curtain for heating only part of your greenhouse.

Compost or manure. Many people keep a compost heap in their greenhouse, or dig a hole or trench in the greenhouse floor to hold compost or manure.

Earth batteries.

JD Sawyer in Colorado uses earth batteries in his commercial greenhouse to regulate temperature. Basically, he is drawing warm air from near the ceiling and channeling it through tubes in the ground, which act as a heat exchanger.


Regardless of where you live and what crops you are growing, airflow will improve your growing environment by providing consistency, as well as supplying the nutrients plants need from the air. You can use the wind if you like, but you should also have a fan for those days when the wind isn't blowing or is too dry/humid.

New Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)