The Joys of the Salmonberry - A Pacific Northwest Native Shrub
Through the Seasons in the Salmonberry Thicket
Rubus Spectabilis, commonly called the salmonberry is a delightful addition to a natural or native plant garden in the Pacific Northwest. Salmonberries are closely related to blackberries and raspberries. They have the shiny skin of a blackberry, but leave a core when picked like a raspberry. Although admittedly the fruit is not as tasty as blackberries or raspberries, but they are very nutritious and abundant and the plant has many other qualities that make it one of my favorite native shrubs.
Salmonberries have a showy bright magenta flowers that have a long blooming season. The blossoms appear early in the spring and provide a nectar source for hummingbirds when little else is available. Salmonberries often form large thickets on the forest edge or as understory in light shade under an open canopy of trees which create great nesting habitat for many species of forest birds. When the berries begin ripening in June they are eagerly eaten by robins and other fruit-eating birds. The combination of beneficial flowers, cover and fruit provided by salmonberry shrubs makes them a great choice for anyone in the Pacific Northwest who wants to plant shrubs that are beneficial to wildlife.
The berries and other parts of the plant are edible and nutritious and salmonberries were used extensively by native americans.
I frequently walk through a salmonberry thicket near my home. On thise page you can share my journey in each season of the year through the salmonberry thicket and learn how to identify and eat salmonberries.
All photos by the author, Vicki Green, unless otherwise credited
A Salmonberry Thicket in Winter
Identifying a Salmonberry Thicket in Winter
The photo above shows a typical salmonberry thicket in the Pacific Northwest. It is in an area near a wetland growing underneath a stand of some older red alder trees. When viewed from further away, the contrast of the golden colored salmonberry branches with grey trunks of the alder and the dark green of the evergreen trees. With their bare, leafless stems and branches, a single salmonberry shrub looks rather desolate, like in the photo below.
A Salmonberry Shrub in Winter
Old and Young Salmonberry Branches
Comparing the Young and the Old Salmonberry Branches
In the above photo it can be clearly seen that young salmonberry branches on the right have more thorns compared to the older branch on the left. Older branches also have interesting darker bark that peels.
Sibley Guide to Birds
The Sibley Guide to Birds is what I consider the best field guide to birds in North America. It is very user friendly and helps both new and experienced birders to distinguish between similar species.
Salmonberries Attract Many Species of Birds
For anyone in the Pacific Northwest who enjoys birdwatching and wants to attract more birds to their garden, the salmonberry is a great plant to grow. It provides, food, cover and nesting sites. I was amazed at how many different species utilize the salmonberry shrub and managed to take some photos of just a few. For anyone who is new to birdwatching, I would recommend getting a good field guide to help identify the species.
Bird Nest in a Salmonberry Shrub
Salmonberry Shrubs Provide Birds with Nesting Sites
In winter it is usually easy to see bird nests that have been built in salmonberry bushes. This is one of many old ones that I saw. Birds obviously find the salmonberry thicket to be a good place to build a nest.
Oregon or Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis)
Salmonberry Thickets Provide Cover
Dark-eyed Junco's are frequently seen in salmonberry thickets. The thicket provides good cover and makes them difficult to see even in winter.
Golden-Crowned Kinglet (Regulus Satrapa) - A Buffet in a Salmonberry Thicket
Salmonberries Provide Food for Birds
I often see kinglets in the salmonberry thickets in winter. They appear to be finding insects to eat and are more often heard than seen. They are difficult to photograph, but I managed to get a quick shot of this one, identified by a red circle.
Spring Arrives Early in the Salmonberry Thicket
Salmonberry Flowers - A Harbinger of Spring in the Pacific Northwest
After a long dreary winter in the Pacific Northwest, there is nothing I enjoy more than seeing these beautiful bright pink blooms appear on the salmonberry shrubs. They are bright pink, about an inch and a half across and are a welcome sign of spring.
Salmonberry Blooms From March to June - First Buds and FlowersClick thumbnail to view full-size
Hummingbirds and Salmonberry Flowers - Early blooms provide nectar
Salmonberry Flowers Provide Nectar for Hummingbirds
The hummingbird in the photo above was visiting the salmonberry flowers near this retaining wall. Unfortunately I wasn't able to get a picture of it by the flowers. I was lucky to get this photo as it flew by me - you can see it circled in red. It appeared to be a female - perhaps a Calliope Hummingbird - I really didn't get a very good look to make a positive species identification. The salmonberry flowers are also enjoyed by bumblebees and other pollinators foraging for nectar in early spring.
Spotted Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)
Other Species Attracted to Salmonberries
The Spotted Towhee is another species I frequently see and hear in the salmonberry thicket. Some other wiildlife species known to find food or cover in salmonberry shrubs are finches, wrens, chickadees, bushtits, thrushes, robins, grouse, pheasants, quail, coyotes, bears, raccoons, chipmunks, squirrels, deer and rabbit.
A Map of Where Salmonberry (Rubus Spectabilis) Grows
Where Do Salmonberries Grow Naturally?
Salmonberries are native to the northwestern US and Canada. As the map shows their range extends from Alaska south to Northwest California. They are found mostly in coastal areas and at lower elevations in nearby mountains, but they also extend east to northern Idaho and western Montana. With proper growing conditions they will grow in USDA Climate Zones 5 to 9. They have also been grown as a cultivated garden plant in Europe.
Green Salmonberries - Salmonberries Ripen Early
Salmonberry Fruiting Season
Since the salmonberry has such a long blooming season, you will often see berries and blooms at the same time on the same plant. The first berries normally start to ripen in by mid June in the lowlands of Western Washington and more berries continue to ripen for a month or more longer.
Traditional Native American Uses of Salmonberry Plants
In addition to the berries, Pacific Northwest Native Americans enjoyed eating the young shoots of the salmonberry plant in the spring. The shoots were peeled and eaten raw with salmon meat or dried salmon eggs. Some say that this is where the name "salmonberry" originated, while others claim the name came from the ripe berries resemblance to salmon eggs.
The salmonberry plant was also used to treat illnesses. A drink made from the roots was used to stimulate appetite. The leaves were used to make tea to treat anemia and the leaves were dried and chewed to cure digestive problems.
Always check with a health care professional before using any wild plant for medicinal purposes.
Leaves that Look Like a Butterfly
One of the ways to identify a salmonberry, is by looking at the leaves. The leaves are in threes with one at the end of the branch and the other two parallel to each other. When the end leaf is turned under, the other two look like butterfly wings.
Ripe salmonberries can be yellow, orange or red. When they are ripe they can easily be pulled from the core like a raspberry. They make a very colorful bowl of berries. Because of the high Vitamin C content, he berries are not very sweet. The general consensus of opinion seems to be that the yellow salmonberries are sweeter than the orange or red ones.
Before consuming any wild plant be absolutely certain that you have properly identified the plant. Some suggestions for ways to learn to identify native plants correctly with certainty is to take a class, refer to a field guide and observe a plant through several seasons and stages of growth.
Tips in Identifying a Salmonberry Bush - A video that shows how to identify salmonberries
This short video shows a couple of simple tips to help identify salmonberries.
Tips for Identifying a Salmonberry Bush
Salmonberry Nutritional Information
Salmonberries are very rich in vitamin C, high in anti-oxidants, low in sodium, a good source of dietary fiber and Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol), and a very good source of Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin K and Manganese.
Here is the Nutritional information per ounce of salmonberries:
Calories - 13
Sodium - 4 mg
Potassium - 25 mg
Total Carbohydrate - 3 g
Fiber - 1 g
Sugars - 1 g
Vitamin A - 3% of daily recommended amount
Vitamin C - 4% of daily recommended amount
Iron - 1% of daily recomme
Add Salmonberries to a Salad
I enjoy this healthy, nutritious salad recipe that combines spring greens with salmonberries and some nuts thrown in for some added protein.
Salmonberry Salad Ingredients
- 1/4 Cup olive oil
- 2 Tablespoons Vinegar
- 1 Tablespoon Rice Vinegar
- 1/4 Cup Sugar (or sugar substitute)
- 1 Tablespoon Sesame Seeds
- 1/2 Tablespoon Poppy Seeds
- 1/8 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
- 1/8 teaspoon Paprika
- 1 teaspoon grated onion
- 3 cups baby spinach or mxed spring greens - washed and drained
- 1 cup salmonberries
- 1/2 cup of nut pieces (walnuts. pecans
- almonds or hazelnuts)
Spring Greens and Salmonberry Salad Instructions
- Mix the first 9 ingredients in a small bowl to make the dressing. Pour over the greens, berries and nuts just before serving and lightly toss.
More Salmonberry Recipes - Links to salmonberry recipes
- Scott's Salmonberry Pie Recipe : : Food Network
Food Network invites you to try this Scott's Salmonberry Pie recipe.
- Fat of the Land: Salmonberry Jam
Salmonberry Jam Recipe
- Stop and Smell the Lichen: New salmonberry recipe.
Salmonberry Cake Recipe
Wild Berry Cookbook - More Recipes Featuring Native Berries
Wild berries are nutritious, non-GMO, natural foods that were used by North American Indians. Jane Hibler's cookbook has many delicious recipes that utilize native berries found in the Pacific Northwest.
Salmonberries are Plentiful and Easy to Pick
Salmonberry Shrubs grow 5 to 10 feet tall and tend to produce fruit near the top, so they are usually at a great height for picking - no back-breaking stooping and bending. The branches have a few thorns, but they are sparse and mild compared to blackberry vines.
Be sure to only pick what you will eat and do not over-harvest. Leave plenty of fruit for the wildlife that depend upon it for their survival and enjoy watching how many species use the salmonberry thicket.
© 2011 Vicki Green