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Kudzu: The vine that ate the south

Updated on August 24, 2017

The amazing story of kudzu

It's a way to pass the time on steamy, languid summer days: Taking pictures of the kudzu, demon vine, foot-a-day vine, the vine that ate the south. Seven million acres swallowed whole, taking in another hundred thousand every year.

Our game is guessing what's beneath the leaves. A house? A barn? A nest of snakes?

Usually nothing more. Abandoned shacks. Leftover shanties. Empty homes, or homes taken by the vines.

My brother wonders who it was that built the houses. Me? I wonder where they've gone.

--Christy Marie Kent

Writer | Storyteller | Speaker

Photo credit: Jack Anthony

Kudzu on trees in Atlanta, Georgia
Kudzu on trees in Atlanta, Georgia

Kudzu on trees in Atlanta, Georgia.

The kudzu monster of Lumpkin

When I was a little girl visiting my grandparents in Lumpkin, a village in southwestern Georgia, just a few minutes from Alabama, a town that still slumbered in the Great Depression even as the rest of the country celebrated the American Dream with new houses and ice-making refrigerators and color television, I would lie awake at night, my six-year-old ears peeled, my eyes wide open in terror, listening to the whispers and creaks of the ancient house, my mother having long since turned out the light to make me go to sleep, and no reading light available to me in that far corner of the earth.

They say you'd best lock your windows at night to keep the kudzu out.

I had heard about "the vine that ate the south," which grows as much as a foot a day in the hot, humid southern climate. During those long, lonely nights, with every scratch that I heard, every snap, every rustle, I imagined that outside my window, scraping at the window frame, seeking a way inside, its tendrils slithering underneath the window sash, was the hairy green kudzu monster that ate the south.

But when the window opened, I peeked out over the edge of the sheet, which I had pulled up to my face, and saw that it wasn't the kudzu monster coming inside. It was my older brother, bravely fighting off the kudzu outside my window. It was only then that I could sleep, knowing that with my hero protecting me from the hairy green monster, the kudzu would never find its way inside that little house.

It was only when I was an adult that I learned my teen-age brother hadn't been outside fighting off the kudzu. He had been climbing inside, trying not to wake my parents after his nightly search through that little town looking for something to drink. Or smoke.

--Christy Marie Kent

Writer | Storyteller | Speaker

Kudzu held at bay from a residential area
Kudzu held at bay from a residential area

What is kudzu?

Or, the birth of the kudzu monster

It was a good-will gesture in 1876, when delegations from thirty-seven nations showed off their cultures at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia celebrating our country's one hundredth birthday and our emergence as a world power. The Japanese built a koi pond and tea garden and filled it with plants from their native islands, including a wild pea vine, the root of which had been used by traditional oriental medicine for centuries as a treatment for cold, flu, diarrhea, neck stiffness, and perhaps most significant to the fairgoers, as a cure for hangovers. The Americans, enthralled by the vines' large leaves and sweet-smelling purple flowers that bloomed in late summer, took home sprigs to plant in their backyards.

They say that on a hot, languid summer day, when you hear a rustle, it's the kudzu growing.

During the Great Depression, because the Japanese pea vine grew so rapidly in the hot, humid climate of the south, the Soil Conservation Service promoted it for erosion control on the Georgia red clay hillsides and at the depleted mines of the Blue Ridge Mountains. No one foresaw that the vine known as kudzu would love the southern climate so much that it would grow as much as a foot a day in the hottest part of the summer, encroaching far beyond the roadsides, climbing nearby trees and choking out their light, smothering the pines in a cloak of darkness and death, until it covered entire forests and telephone poles and barns and houses, the only visible clue as to what lay underneath the blanket of kudzu being the green leafy roof shapes and chimney forms, like redneck topiaries.

Today more than seven million acres of the southeast lie beneath the kudzu vines, larger than the entire state of Maryland, earning kudzu the name "the vine that ate the South." They say that on a quiet day, when you hear a rustle, it's the kudzu growing; and you'd better lock your windows at night to keep it out.

Photo: Newberry County, South Carolina. CCC enrollees planting kudzu on C. C. Spoon's farm, Newberry County, South Carolina. 200,000 seedlings were planted by CCC enrollees in this county this year 1941. These seedlings were planted on 400 acres representing 100 different farms. Photo credit National Archives and Records Administration

Christy Marie Kent's books on Amazon

Did you know that Christy Marie Kent is a writer and storyteller? If you like the writing style in this lens, you'll love Pecan Pie, Cigars, and the One and Only Secret to Happiness.

Pecan Pie, Cigars, and the One and Only Secret to Happiness
Pecan Pie, Cigars, and the One and Only Secret to Happiness

Imagine giving a toast to your grandmother, recognizing the amazing things she did in her life. Now, imagine that instead of telling true stories, you just make all this stuff up. That's the kind of stories you'll find in this fictional book.

 

Kudzu air pollution

How kudzu puts the blue in the Blue Ridge Mountains

Did you know that kudzu makes the Blue Ridge Mountains bluer?

The flora of the mountains releases airborne isoprene, a chemical that scatters the light waves, enhancing the shorter wavelengths. Since blue wavelengths are the shortest, this causes a blue haze over the mountains, each ridge back appearing more blue than the ridge in front of it.

Kudzu releases isoprene and nitric oxide, which combines with nitrogen in the air to form surface ozone, an air pollutant that causes health problems in humans and can deter plant growth. Kudzu ozone (kudzone?) "leads to about a 50 percent increase in the number of days each year in which ozone levels exceed what the Environmental Protection Agency deems as unhealthy," said a University of Virginia professor of environmental sciences and biology, co-author of a study on kudzu's effect on ozone production.

So not only does it make the mountains blue. It also makes people feel blue.

Haze over the Blue Ridge Mountains
Haze over the Blue Ridge Mountains

Haze over the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Photo by Jürgen Nagel via Creative Commons

Kudzu-covered field near Port Gibson, Mississippi
Kudzu-covered field near Port Gibson, Mississippi

Kudzu-covered field near Port Gibson, Mississippi.

Photo by Galen Parks Smith

How do you kill kudzu?

Bringing death and destruction to the invasive species

Like me or any other good southerner, kudzu hates cold weather and grows best in warm climates; but although the green vegatation dies back in the winter, roots survive southern winters.

Those roots can grow deep (also like any good southerner). Because those roots invade six feet or more down into the soil, burning or cutting kudzu off at the ground won't kill it. You would have to remove the root ball, difficult work, especially in the summer heat; or cut it off continuously for several years. Some people have had success letting cattle or goats over-graze it repeatedly, removing all the vegetation, especially in the late summer and fall, when the leaves are sending nutrients to their winter storage for the winter.

When the kudzu vines have grown for years, their runners permeating nearby spaces across an acre or more, the root crowns bulging to two inches across or more, those roots become so deeply infested and so branched out that mowing or grazing probably won't kill the beast. That's when you'll need chemicals. Some people have had success with Round-Up or other herbicides-although at least one herbicide is said to make it grow better.

Photo credit Kudzu Koalition.

What's the best way to kill kudzu?

See results

Killing kudzu with bean plantaspids

Is the solution worse than the problem?

If only kudzu had natural enemies, perhaps it wouldn't proliferate so rapidly. Right?

After over a hundred years with no natural enemies in North America, kudzu has finally found competition. The bean plastaspid, also known as the kudzu bug, showed up in 2009 and is spreading across Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Instead of eating only the leaves, the kudzu bugs sink their suckers into the stem of the plant, sucking the life out of its wilting veins.

And with no natural predators in North America, these new Asian invaders have spread from a single traveling bug to a four-state infestation in only two years, proliferating faster than Occupy Wall Street demonstrations.

Sounds great, right? Except for one problem. This invasive species of bug also eats soybeans. So here we are with a non-native species brought in from Asia, with no natural predators, spreading throughout the south.

Isn't this where we came in?

Below are links to a few sites with kudzu death information. (Note that these are links to sites that I found useful and want to share. They are not advertisements and neither I nor Squidoo earn income from your clicks.)

Kudzu devouring a house on Wash Rider Road
Kudzu devouring a house on Wash Rider Road

Kudzu devouring a house on Wash Rider Road.

Photo credit Jack Anthony

Kudzu soap in the Etsy marketplace
Kudzu soap in the Etsy marketplace

What are some uses for kudzu?

When life hands you weeds, make kudzu soap or kudzu baskets

When the kudzu monster tries to bury all the world, some of the most obstinate people refuse to submit. These are the people move their cars before the kudzu can cover it, who pull it away from their houses, who rip it up by the roots.

But others fight back by eating it. Kudzu blossom jelly, anyone? Kudzu wine? How about deep-fried kudzu (because southerners will deep-fry anything) or kudzu salad? Or go to the Blythewood Kudzu Festival for a kudzu eating contest.

Other than food, artists and craftspeople turn the slithering kudzu tendrils into baskets and the oil into soap.

Check out the wonderful kudzu crafts on Etsy, the world's handmade marketplace, and help us fight back against the kudzu monster, one pretzel at a time.

Kudzu in traditional Chinese medicine

In the comments section (below), reader KT says:

"Christy. Thank you for all the details about Kudzu. It's the miracle for our health.

"I have been using the Kudzu powder since I was a toddler back in VN. The water there need to be boil before you can drink. So i was always dehydrated, this cause urinary infection. Then my mom just give me one glass of Kudzu root power then i would be cured. Anytime my kids had a fever, flu, diarhea, headache, etc... I just give them the same juice. This Kudzu powder is the miracle for anything you can name for your health. from headache, cholesterol,... to menopause...."

Isn't that interesting? I'm not a doctor, and no one reading this should take this as medical advice. That being said, people in the orient have used it this way for centuries, long before the advent of western pharmacology.

Following their example, my husband likes dietary supplements. Lots of them. Between his fish oil and Vitamin D and whatnot, and his prescription medications, it takes two daily pill organizers to hold his daily allotment.

So the other day he had a huge smile when he came home. "Guess what I found for you? It fits right in with what you have been writing." And out of his plastic drug store bag he pulled a bottle of kudzu tablets.

Kudzu Blossoms

Photo credit Jack Anthony
Photo credit Jack Anthony

Photo credit Jack Anthony. Check out his excellent kudzu photos at http://www.jackanthonyphotography.com/yahoola/kudzu/index.html.

Kudzunol?

Practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine have used kudzu for centuries in treatments for alcoholism and hangovers, making it especially ironic that an entrepreneur in East Tennessee is using kudzu to produce alcohol. Kudzunol.

Check out Agro*Gas's effort to use kudzu as a biofuel, replacing corn with a worthless weed, eliminating the competition with food sources that drives up commodity prices. Interesting!

Kudzu Jesus

In North Carolina, Kent Hardison nearly killed Jesus. Seeing the kudzu vines climbing a telephone pole near his hot dog stand, he set out to destroy the vine--but then he noticed that the vines looked remarkably like Jesus on the cross. "You just can't spray Jesus with Roundup," he thought. Read the full story at Kinston Free Press.

And after you have enjoyed the photo of Kudzu Jesus, then go to UPI and learn that Kudzu Jesus isn't kudzu after all--it's trumpet vine.

How do you grow kudzu?

You didn't expect information on how to grow this infamous southern pest, did you? Tifton B. Merritt is a southern writer with a wonderful sense of humor. His tongue-in-cheek guide on how to grow kudzu reveals such priceless suggestions as:

Kudzu should always be planted at night. If kudzu is planted during daylight hours, angry neighbors might see you and begin throwing rocks at you.

Monster or culture?

Noodle on this: Because Kudzu has only been in the south for a few generations, our ancestors never saw it. The first Europeans who settled on the coast, or who crossed the Smokies into the western lands, found no kudzu. The native Americans forced westward on the Trail of Tears passed by no kudzu. The builders of the antebellum plantations hacked away the forest to create tillable fields, but they didn't have any kduzu to fight. Kudzu threatens the Civil War battlement monument at Vicksburg, but there was no kudzu in Vicksburg at the time of the battle.

On the other hand, you and I have never seen a south without kudzu. As it has become an integral part of our southern landscape, I can't imagine never seeing a forest that is not covered in vines.

Would you miss kudzu if it were gone?

I'd love to hear your feedback.

So whattaya think?

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    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 4 years ago

      @OhMe: OhMe, does she have a website? If so, I'd be happy to add it to this page.

    • OhMe profile image

      Nancy Tate Hellams 4 years ago from Pendleton, SC

      I really do not like Kudzu at all and we have a time keeping it out of our yard. There is a local artisan who makes beautiful Kudzu Baskets so I am glad that something beautiful can come from it.

    • PickupTrucksFan1 profile image

      PickupTrucksFan1 5 years ago

      Cows wipe it out if they get to it.

    • profile image

      SteveKaye 5 years ago

      We lived in Virginia and saw kudzu. It's amazing. Well, okay, it's more than amazing.

    • digitaltree profile image

      digitaltree 5 years ago

      Interesting Lens, first time i hear of this.

    • HalloweenRecipes profile image

      HalloweenRecipes 5 years ago

      Very interesting lens. I first read about kudzu in a book but didn't quite understand the scope of the problem. You have explained it in such detail that I can grasp the amount of devastation this plant has caused, and will continue to cause. I hope a solution, other than the kudzu bug, is found soon.

    • Burningwoodarts profile image

      Burningwoodarts 5 years ago

      Thanks for this lense. I've lived in NC for 12 years now, and this plant is insane.

    • bluefire1020 profile image

      bluefire1020 5 years ago

      Enjoyed reading this, I learned a lot about kudzu now. I never knew it's name until I saw them here. Thank you. =)

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      One time I heard "If life gives you lemon, add sugar and water to make lemonade". Kudzu is not bad if you know how to use it.

    • jordanmilesbask profile image

      jordanmilesbask 5 years ago

      Great lens! I learn something new...

    • Cari Kay 11 profile image

      Kay 5 years ago

      I just have to say this is by far one of the best pages I've seen on Squidoo. Could have something to do with so much of my studies revolving around invasive species but, really, I enjoyed this page a lot. Very nicely done! You have a new fan!

    • profile image

      slappywalker 5 years ago

      I grew up in South Carolina, and I had always just taken kudzu for granted. We would always joke about how it completely covered anything in its path, but I never took the time to research the history behind it.

      I truly enjoyed reading your lens on it. The next time I head home to visit family, I'll have new-found respect/fear for the vine.

    • SophiaStar LM profile image

      SophiaStar LM 5 years ago

      I have not traveled a lot in the south, pretty much only Texas. I have never heard of this vine very interesting article, full of great information and story telling thank you!!

    • TravelDiaries profile image

      TravelDiaries 5 years ago

      Loved the lens.

      There is a great example of us messing up the perfect balance of nature. If we were supposed to have kudzu in the south it would have been there already. Now what?

    • Dee Gallemore profile image

      Dee Gallemore 5 years ago

      As someone who has her roots stemming from the south, I never knew the origins of this vine. Thank you for an absolutely fabulous lens, chocked with an amazing amount of information. Blessed!

    • KReneeC profile image

      KReneeC 5 years ago

      Great lens! I had no idea

    • abb1fan profile image

      abb1fan 5 years ago

      When I was in NC, I wondered what this stuff was all about. . . thanks for giving me the information!

    • Wendy Leanne profile image

      Wendy Leanne 5 years ago from Texas

      Came back to *~bless~*

    • Wendy Leanne profile image

      Wendy Leanne 5 years ago from Texas

      I live in the south and never knew the name of that vine and certainly never knew it was foreign born until I read your lens. Very interesting.

    • Kathryn Beach profile image

      Kathryn Wallace 5 years ago from Greenbank, WA, USA

      Why don't "the tree people" (Weyerhauser, Georgia Pacific, etc.) convert their facilities to processing kudzu to replace tree products, since it grows so much faster than trees? Just a thought...fun lens!

    • Dragon 40 profile image

      Ken McVay 5 years ago from Nanaimo, British Columbia

      Here on Vancouver Island, it isn't kudzu but English Ivy, which, if left to its own devices, kills trees and other plants in exactly the same way. Well done - blessed!

    • Ann Hinds profile image

      Ann Hinds 5 years ago from So Cal

      I learned something and found that even further north, vines are taking back their own. My cousin found a couple of older cars buried underneath the blackberry vines. We are planning a trip to the south so we will be able to see this in person. We only deal with tumbleweeds.

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
      Author

      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @anonymous: Thanks, Tipi!

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
      Author

      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @ferginarg lm: thanks, ferginarg. I love "infotainment."

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      Interesting article, I had no idea. Thanks!

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @MelonyVaughan: Thanks, Melony!

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @Scarlettohairy: Ah, a good southern show!

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @vetochemicals: Thanks for commenting, rnhealthinfo. What do you use it for?

    • vetochemicals profile image

      Cindy 5 years ago from Pittsburgh Pa

      Lots of great uses for this monster plant kudzu and I learned a lot, thanks for sharing it!

    • Scarlettohairy profile image

      Peggy Hazelwood 5 years ago from Desert Southwest, U.S.A.

      I've never seen kudzu but remember Brenda talking about it on The Closer.

    • MelonyVaughan profile image

      MelonyVaughan 5 years ago

      What a fun lens! I had a blast reading it and you have so many interesting facts here. Bravo!

    • ferginarg lm profile image

      ferginarg lm 5 years ago

      It's excellent bringing information like this in front of people, I don't live in the US nor am I an American, but I still think it's really important providing this kind of information to the masses.

    • falling lakes profile image

      falling lakes 5 years ago

      Great Story and Lens too!

    • KathyBatesel profile image

      KathyBatesel 5 years ago

      When something like gold is abundant in an area, we call it a resource. When we don't know how to use it yet, we call it a pest. Something like kudzu has a ton of potential, I think, although we have to learn to cope with its undesirable effects. Great lens!

    • RCGraphicsDesign profile image

      RCGraphicsDesign 5 years ago

      I think Kudzu should be wiped off the planet. It is everywhere. Thanks for a great lens.

    • tvyps profile image

      Teri Villars 5 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

      I think it has some properties that deal with hormones, or something like that. I remember a family member taking it during menopause. I know that Cat's Claw is also another terror to some. We like it here in Arizona because it doesn't overgrow. It it got more rain or watering, it could be a problem but it is more easily managed because it doesn't rain much. Squid Angel blessed!

    • Art-Aspirations profile image

      Art-Aspirations 5 years ago

      This is terrifying, but what a well-crafted lens!

    • jlshernandez profile image

      jlshernandez 5 years ago

      Looks like a good subject for a horror movie.

    • profile image

      aquarian_insight 5 years ago

      Ewwww kudzu. Good info here.

    • sockii profile image

      Nicole Pellegrini 5 years ago from New Jersey

      Brilliant lens - loved the stories and the writing, had no idea just HOW invasive kudzu really was!

    • flycatcherrr profile image

      flycatcherrr 5 years ago

      Impressive plant - and not in a good way! - although it's very attractive in the photographs. But, kinda scary. This is the stuff of which 1950-'60s horror flicks were made... I shall keep a sharp eye on to the south, in case it decides to immigrate to Canada.

    • futurefocus57 profile image

      futurefocus57 5 years ago

      Always wondered what that stuff was.

    • esvoytko lm profile image

      esvoytko lm 5 years ago

      I am a defected Georgian, so this brings me back. Didn't know anyone made Kudzu soap!

    • lunagaze profile image

      lunagaze 5 years ago

      Wow what a scary monstrosity that vine is, great lens.

    • profile image

      fullofshoes 5 years ago

      I remember the first time I saw Kudzu and heard its story. Scared me right back to New England. Great lens!

    • profile image

      TechGurrrl 5 years ago

      Fantastic lens. Thank you for sharing your knowledge of the kudzu plant with wit, flair and southern charm. A great read.

    • AlexTedford profile image

      AlexTedford 5 years ago

      I don't like kudzu! Cheers!

    • ElizabethSheppard profile image

      Elizabeth Sheppard 5 years ago from Bowling Green, Kentucky

      I liked this lens. I have seen Kudzu before, and didn't like it. Maybe someday we can get rid of it...

    • profile image

      miaponzo 5 years ago

      That is crazy.. wow! Blessed!

    • paperfacets profile image

      Sherry Venegas 5 years ago from La Verne, CA

      I think the Japanese are not so laid back, so this never seemed a problem in Japan. Everything has it own home in Japan. Boundaries are well defined there, the south's culture is laid back compared to the plants native island. The plant finally thought to was free.

    • LiteraryMind profile image

      Ellen Gregory 5 years ago from Connecticut, USA

      Nice lens. A great balance of information, humor and personal stories.

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
      Author

      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @anonymous: KT, thank you for sharing the personal stories about kudzu. It's interesting that you drank a glass of it to cure a urinary tract infection. Hmmm ... I'll have to add your comments to the text up above on health uses.

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      @ChristyMarieKent: Christy. Thank you for all the details about Kudzu. It's the miracle for our health. I have been using the Kudzu powder since I was a toddler back in VN. The water there need to be boil before you can drink. So i was always dehydrated, this cause urinary infection. Then my mom just give me one glass of Kudzu root power then i would be cured. Anytime my kids had a fever, flu, diarhea, headache, etc... I just give them the same juice. This Kudzu powder is the miracle for anything you can name for your health. from headache, cholesterol,... to menopause....

    • Joan Haines profile image

      Joan Haines 5 years ago

      I've heard that it's dangerous to try walking across kudzu covered ground, 'cause all the holes and booby traps and snakes and such are hidden, just waiting for you as you wade through.

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
      Author

      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @TheLittleCardShop: Thanks for the feedback! I'm afraid there is no way to keep it under control--not in our southern climate. It grows so ferociously that homeowners have to be vigilant and kill it off as soon as they see it.

    • TheLittleCardShop profile image

      Malu Couttolenc 5 years ago

      Woww Christy, very interesting reading about kudzu, never heard of it before. It seems it can be useful but under control, if that is possible. I can't imagine how hard it must be for people to have their house and land eaten by kudzu.

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @yayas: Yaya, good point. It's really a monster vine in the southern climate. It didn't grow out of control like that in Asia, where it originated. The problem is not so much whether to kill it off, but how to kill it off.

    • yayas profile image

      yayas 5 years ago

      The Vine that ate the South? Oooooh! That's kinda' scary. A plant that grows as much as a foot a day?!? I cannot imagine a whole lotta' reasons to keep a plant like that around, I'm afraid.

    • profile image

      cmadden 5 years ago

      We had a similar (albeit much smaller-scale) problem when we lived in the Seattle area years ago. I don't remember what the plant was, but it made it's way into the crawl space and a shoot was growing between the wood floor and the fireplace at one point; that's when we got very serious about getting rid of it! Interesting lens.

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @I-sparkle: Thank you, I-sparkle! When I moved to Minnesota, I mentioned kudzu and the Minnesotans looked at me as if I had said "flibbertygabbertaggity" or some other gibberish. No one up here knew what it was.

    • I-sparkle profile image

      I-sparkle 5 years ago

      Fascinating! In addition to a captivating story and pictures, I know that it will be one of the most original subjects that I read about for months. Great job!

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
      Author

      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @JoshK47: It's amazing how much it grows, isn't it? Thank you for the blessing!

    • profile image

      JoshK47 5 years ago

      Great stuff - well, kudzu can be a bit annoying if it's growing where you don't want it - and boy does it. Blessed by a SquidAngel!

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @anonymous: Thank you so much! You are very kind.

      I must confess that I did not take these pictures myself, as I have been moved up to the frozen tundra of Minnesota. No kudzu grows here. But I did find some excellent sources of photos as I did the research for this lens; you should check out the links to the photos to find more excellent southern photography.

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      this is the second lens I've read of yours tonight, well done indeed, not only did I like the read on this but you've got terrific photos of it, earned another 'thumbs up' from this avid reader.

    • ChristyMarieKent profile image
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      ChristyMarieKent 5 years ago

      @WriterJanis2: Thank you, Janis!

    • WriterJanis2 profile image

      WriterJanis2 5 years ago

      Nice job!