# Spreadsheet Packages

Spreadsheet is a name for all programs designed to handle all accounting and statistical problems. A spreadsheet is an electronic version of the manual worksheet used to organized and manipulate numbers and displays options for what-if analysis. it is based on the traditional accounting worksheet that have long been used by accountants and managers to work balance sheets, sales projections and expense budgets. spreadsheets are also used by financial analysts, contractors and other businessmen concerned with manipulating numeric data. Before the introduction of electronic spreadsheet, the ledger was the accountant's primary tool for recording financial transactions. Any application that has to do with rows and columns is an application for spreadsheet. some of these application includes income statements, demographic data, budget summaries e.t.c. spreadsheets are important because they handle spreadsheet problems exceptionally well. At the heart of any spreadsheet is a column of information, such as set of prices for set items that need to be worked on such as addition. with manual spreadsheet, someone would have to look up the prices, perform the calculation, and then write down the result.

Apart from all the time this takes there is the possibility of errors. The electronic spreadsheet on the other hand, will do all the calculations in a matter of split second, prints out the result the way you want with virtually no chance of errors. You can manipulate numbers by using stored formulas and calculate different outcomes. For example, a retail store manager can estimate quarterly profits by projecting sales over a three-month period. The manager can subtract expenses resulting from advertisement, cost of goods and salaries. if he sees that expenses are too high to produce a profit, he can experiment on the screen by reducing some expenses and see the result immediately.

## Structure of Spreadsheet

A spreadsheet is organized in a tabular structure with rows and columns. it has several parts- the worksheet area of the spreadsheet, which displays the row and column table. The rows are usually numbered down the left side while the columns are lettered across the top. The columns run from A,B,C,..AZ and so on up to 256 columns. most spreadsheet packages permit up to 8196 rows or more depending on the size of the RAM. The intersection of a row and column designates a cell. Data is entered and held in a cell. The position of a cell is celled cell address. In the worksheet area of rows and columns movable highlight is used to point to the cells. This highlight is known as the cell pointer and can be moved around with the cursor-movement(arrow keys to any cell address in much the same way that you move the insertion point in a word processor.

## Entering Data

All that is required to enter data in the spreadsheet is simply moving the pointer to the appropriate cell using the cursor-control keys, and then keying in the data. You also move the pointer to the appropriate cell in order to edit an already keyed data. The address and content of the current cell are usually displayed in the user-interface portion of the spreadsheet-top corner of the spreadsheet work area. Whatever you are keying into a cell is displayed as you typed the characters. When you finish typing, the ENTER key or the cursor-control key is pressed to insert the data into the cell where you have the pointer. if it is the arrow key that was pressed, the data is inserted and the pointer moves to the next cell.

## Types Of Data Entries

There are three classifications for the information (data) that we can put in a cell. if the data is a text such as a person's name, title or heading, it is classified as label entry. A label (text) entry is a word, phrase, or any string of alphanumeric text (space included) that occupies a cell. A numeric entry is classified as value. The third classification is formulas, which are instructions for calculations. They calculate results using numbers in referenced cells. for example, to calculate the total for a set of cells, first you need to position the pointer in the cell where you want to have the total usually at the end of a row or column for the set of cells. You should tell the spreadsheet that what you want to enter is a formula, not a label or value. in some spreadsheets, you do this by typing the @ sign. In Excel you use the = sign. A typical example is =D2+A5. This means add the value in D2 to the value in A5. The result of this calculation will be displayed wherever the pointer is positioned. Spreadsheet formulas use standard notation for arithmetic operations: +,-,*,/,^. Unless otherwise specified, numeric entries are right justified. you can however, specify otherwise. you can also center your entry in the cell.

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