I think you have to look at the individual situation to see what the person needs. Some people might need help learning a skill, which you could teach them or help them find others who can. Similarly, others might need experience, and you can do the same. They might need education, and you can help them get into the school, provide tuition assistance if you can afford it, and/or help them find scholarships, grants, financial aid, etc. Many people struggle with housing because they can't afford a deposit, and you could help with that, too.
If you expand this to apply to people in developing nations, what you can do is even greater. Sites like kiva.com allow you to give microloans to people. These loans start at $25, which here would buy dinner out, but is a substantial amount of money there, and with kiva, being that it's a loan, the money will be eventually repaid to you (and then you can loan it to others for maximum impact). Another great charity is heifer international, which allows you to purchase livestock that will provide food and income to families, who will also breed the animals and give them to other families, thus spreading the opportunity.
There's lots of things you can do; you just need to be willing to take the time to see what needs to be done.