ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

All About Politics And Government

Updated on February 10, 2012
State through picture!
State through picture! | Source

What is the definition State?

PAD 120


The central concern of political science is the state. It is a natural institution because it is rooted in the reality of human nature. The word ‘state’ as defined above is a people organized for law within a definite territory, exercising both internal and external sovereignty. Aristotle said the state existed for the purpose of seeking common good and moral perfection. They are divided into 2, governing group will be the government called the ruler and subjects is the citizen, population ruled by the government.

State is politically organised people of definite territory. (Bluntschli). Therefore, these attributes constitute the very essence of statehood must have its population, a definite territory, a duly established government, and sovereignty.

How does the state exist? As a Muslim, an immediate answer is that the state is Allah’s creation. The state is purposely created by Allah to all mankind as a temporary place for them to make a preparation for hereafter. The existence of the state was exactly very difficult to know because there are no historical proves with certainty the origin of the state. This chapter elaborate development of statehood based on the known theories of origin.



Population is derived from the Latin word populus which means people. It is the fundamental of a state because a state will not exist without population. But, a population should be large enough in order to make a state and sustain it. Population is also known as group of people living together permanently. By living together, they develop the same values such as culture, heritage and history. With these values, the sense of togetherness among them is strong. In a population, most of them share the same ideology as long as majority rules. This make a state becomes stable and systematic. A state mostly has an official language. For example, Malaysia is a country that consists of people from different races, religions and culture. But, they share almost similar values and cultures. Plus, they use Bahasa Malaysia as the official language.

Population also consists into 2 groups. They are citizen and alien. Citizen is people entitled to citizenship in a state by birth (jus soli). Any person born on the soil of a state is automatically entitled citizenship. Another method of having citizenship is called jus sanguinis (law of blood). In this category, citizenship is under inheritance. For example, a baby is born to French couple, this make the baby as a French citizen. The second group which is aliens are people from another state living in a different state legally or illegally. But, these people are also able to apply for citizenship under the rule of naturalization.

There is no limit for a number of people living in a state. But, the population must be sufficient to maintain the state organization.


Territory is a land where people live on permanently and continuously. There can be no state without territory. As far as we concerned, there is connection between population and territory to create what we called citizenship. A territory may also develop the sense of patriotism in our heart. Some countries called their country as “Motherland” while some called it “Fatherland”. The people are willing to sacrifice everything for their country.

Territory of a state is not only on the land. It includes the ocean, airspace and underground. They all work under contemporary international law. Majority of states nowadays accept at 12 nautical miles limit for water territory. Underwater territory is also considered as they can manage oil drilling rigs and the possibility of mining mineral resources. For example, Malaysia has the right to drill oil in some part of South China Sea for their own advantage. The state also controls the airspace above their territory. So, flying above a territory without permission of the government in charge is strictly illegal.

The state must emphasized that there should be some proportion between the population and territory of state. If they failed to do so, it might affect their economy and political stability. So, it is crucial for the state to have an efficient defense in all area and administration.


The purpose for which people live together can’t be realized unless they are properly organized and accept certain rules of conduct. The agency created to enforce such rules of conduct and ensure obedience is called government. A government is an agency that has monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force in a given territory (Max Weber). Without government, there will be chaos in territory. People will live separately according to their believes. Government is functional to formulate and carries out politics.

Other than that, government makes full use of its power to ensure domestic order, maintain security and welfare of its population. For example, the government of Malaysia controls all of administration and its resources. Government is the body of the people and they are responsible to enforce the law. A state government has the power to control their people by force if things get out of control.

Government becomes the focus of the people as the medium that policies are determined, common affairs are resolved and common interests are promoted. It is all for the well being of the people.


Sovereignty is the most essential element in a state. It is the right to be independent from any internal or external threat. It is the power and legal authority to be free from any conqueror. It means, the state is the supreme decision-maker. In Malaysia, this body is the Parliament. Sovereignty is separated into two groups. It has internal and external sovereignty. Internal sovereignty refers to the right of state to apply their laws within their boundaries. These laws can’t be shared in any states outside of their boundaries. For example, Malaysia has the right to exercise their laws only in their territories that has been claimed.

External sovereignty means recognition in international law that the state has authority over a territory. It means that the state is answerable for that jurisdiction in international law. For example, the UN gave permission to Israel to occupy some of the territories in Palestine. Until now, the Israel has the authority to exercise their law in Palestine.

In conclusion, sovereignty belongs to the government which has the right to make laws for a state.


Theory of divine origin.

It is the oldest and ancient theory of state’s existence. It explains a state by a supernatural power for example God. The king appointed by god and accountable to God. The ruler (king) is above the people and their law thus subjected to no earthly authority.

Man are incapable of making any laws. They have no power to control the authority. Obeying the king is a religious duty. He can create any law what he wanted to. The king is above the law, the higher of population. Only God can punish him.

Disobedience to the king is a sin and liable to punishment. King’s power is limitless and absolute. The power have no limits, he can take property from the citizen, so the citizen must obey the king.

The theory finds its strength with the support in the scriptures of some religions like Hinduism and Christianity. It has been wrongly assumed by most people that Islam subscribes to a theocratic state. In Islam, every human being, not the ruler alone, is described as the vicegerent of God. Vicegerent means monarch.

There could be no civil society without the rule of the king. The only choice for the people was to submit to the authority of the ruler to save them from anarchy and chaos prevailing in the state of nature (Kapur,2004). The only one choice man has is to submit to the authority of the king to save themselves from anarchic ruling of the state of nature. Anarchic means here is the rules of individual. In other words, do your rules on your own.

The monarch is divinely appointed by God. Power is transferred hereditarily. The monarch is answerable to God alone. Résistance / opposition to the monarch authority is a sin according to this theory.

Theory of force.

This theory argues that the state came into existence through brutal force.

This theory is based upon the conception of human nature. Men argue. Like animals,

there is an appetite for power in them. The strong captures the weak and exercises authority over them. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) wrote in his book, the prince.

He is an Italian philosopher who was one of the main founders of modern

political science.

Tell us of a new ruler (The Prince) who had to stabilize his new found power to

build along term political structure. This theory tells us that is born out force. It emphasized on the ‘survival of the fittest’ concept. Weaker party submit to the strong. ‘Survival of the fittest’ means live as long as you want for brute forces is the foundation of the state. By being harsh, it forces the citizen or population to accept their government. For example in ancient England, the kingdom can do whatever they want to the population such as taking the property from citizen. Many poor people have been victim by their government. The ruler is willing to act immorally in order to defend his ruling. He can do whatever he wants to maintain power.

Machiavellian emphasized the usage of brute force and deceit in order to gain

and maintain power. For example, the ruler lied to other people for the stabilization

in their state. Force is an essential feature of the state. Strength is the

justification to conquer other such as Japanese using the power of military began the

war in World War II by attacking Asian country like Singapore, Indonesian, China and South Korean for their own property.

Once a state is established, force is used as an instrument to maintain internal

order and secure from external aggression. The strength of state depend on their

brute force to chased the invaders. In other word, invader must die.


Divine origin is the oldest theory of state in the world. In the great dynasty of China, the emperors were looked by the people as God’s appointer. The emperors were always right and every decisions he made are accepted by the people. In the eyes of the people, he does not commit any sins. The emperors were the one who judge the wrongdoers in the state. He has the power to give decisions in the court and to give any sort of punishments to the guilty. Other than that, the emperor himself was appointed as the General of the army who control the whole operation of its batalion. Although China has stopped using the emperor as the head of the state, they are still applying the method of one man decision. In short, divine origin is where a man makes a final decision and his power are limitless.

In the theory of force, we may look back to the verge of World War II. World War II erupted when Germany invaded Poland and breaking Versailles Treaty by building a massive army. The Germans at that time are obsessed with their powerful leader, Adolf Hitler. He called the state as Third Reich. His cruelty are evident as he built a detention camp where he killed millions of Jews. This ethnic cleansing has destroyed more than half of the Jewish population around the world. Germany occupied many European countries such as Poland, Austria, France, Belgium and many more. The Third Reich use force as the main element to occupy territories to create a state called Great Germany


From this post, we can understand the definition of state. Their theory and usage from all over the world differs from what we may practised. Whatever it is, every state has their own pros and cons. According to the elements of state, that will be population, territory, sovereignty, government.

The history of the past should be studied in order to know the general creation of state. We can gain more general knowledge about world and how was state has created. What we studies can be related in our life like how to be a good citizen or population, our responsibility to maintain the sovereignty of the state we live. For example, we must follow the rule and administrative of our state, Malaysia. We must take care of our territory like we care about our family.

Government needs to govern the people and organized the development of the state. To govern well, the government enforced it sovereignty and make sure the citizen obey the rules while foreign state respect the laws of the state.

The existence of the state can be related to several theories. One of the theories is ‘divine origin’ where the citizen believe the king was chosen by god and they have to obey without permission.



1. Peter Lassman. 1989. Politics And Social Theory. London Routledge.

2. John A. hall & G. John Ikenberry. 1989. The state , Milton keynes

Open University Press.

3. Politics & Government, Karl W. Dentsch, 1974 (Houghton Miffin company)

4. The political Science Student, Gregory M. Scoot, Stephen M. Garrison,

Prentice Hall.

5. Mein Kamph, Adolf Hitler. 1992. Translated by Ralph Mancheim with introduction by D.C WATT.


1. West’s Ensiklopedia of Theory of state (Full Articles) from Answer.Com


2. Reference for State and the


Take A Look on This Product!


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • greattalexander profile imageAUTHOR


      6 years ago

      tq for yr comment.I'm still keep reading n finding factual info about politics in Islamic perspective either books or other altrnatives.As a muslim,yes I believe the state is creation of Allah but in my other hand Western Political Thought is still logic and acceptable..for me both can be used..this topic seems attracting..myb it'll be my next hub.. hv a nice day ^,^

    • American Romance profile image

      American Romance 

      6 years ago from America

      "As a Muslim the state is Allah's creation" I find that interesting, As a Christian I find our country Gods country, what does that do for you and I??? Welcome to hub pages?.........thought for the day I suppose!

    • greattalexander profile imageAUTHOR


      6 years ago

      welcome...keep following my updates..i'm new n i'll try to update daily. ^,^

    • Pollyannalana profile image


      6 years ago from US

      Wow, very informative, welcome to hubs!



    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)